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Anatomy Ch 1

Primary tissues Muscle, Nervous, Epithelial, Connective
Muscle Tissue Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Skeletal Muscle Voluntary, Striated. Attached to bones by tendons, produce skeletal movement. Muscle fibers arranged in bundles, fibers arranged in parallel.
Cardiac Muscles Striated, found only in the heart. Myocardial cells are interconnected to form continuous fabric. Intercalated discs couple cells together mechanically and electrically. Syncytium.
Smooth Muscles Not striated. Do not contain sarcomeres. Ca2+ combines with calmodulin, activating contraction process. Contain gap junctions. Found in GI tract, blood vessels, bronchioles, ducts of urinary and reproductive systems.
Nervous Tissue Neurons (nerve cells): Specialized for action potential conduction. Dendrites: Receive input. Cell body: Nucleus. Metabolic center. Axon: Conducts nerve impulses Supporting cells (neuroglia/glia): Provide anatomical and functional support
Epithelial Cells that form membranes Classified according to # of layers and shape of cells in upper layer. Simple: 1 cell thick, used for transport Stratified membranes: Many layers, protective Squamous, columnar, cuboidal
Squamous Cells Flattened in shape. Function: Diffusion and filtration. Line all blood vessels, pulmonary alveoli.
Cuboidal Cells Cube-shaped cells. Function: Excretion, secretion and absorption. Line kidney tubules, salivary and pancreatic ducts.
Columnar Cells Taller column shaped cells. Function: Excretion, secretion and absorption. May contain cilia. Line digestive tract, uterine tubes, and respiratory passageways.
Exocrine Glands Derived from cells of epithelial membranes. Secretions are released through ducts. Simple tubes or modified as acini. Examples: Tear glands. Sweat glands. Prostate glands.
Endocrine Glands Lack ducts. Secrete hormones into capillaries/lymphatic system within the body. May be discrete organs: Primary functions are the production and secretion of hormones.
Connective Tissue Large amounts of extracellular material in the spaces between connective tissue cells. 4 types of connective tissue: Connective tissue proper. (adipose) Cartilage. Bone. Blood.
Connective Tissue Proper Loose connective tissue: Scattered collagen & tissue fluid Dermis Dense fibrous connective tissue: Regularly arranged Collagen oriented in same direction Tendon Irregularly " Resists forces applied Capsules & sheaths
Cartilage Chondrocytes. Supportive and protective tissue. Elastic properties to tissues. Precursor to many bones. Articular surfaces on joints.
Bone Hydroxyapatite crystals. Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells. Osteocytes: Trapped osteoblasts: less active. Osteoclasts: Bone resorbing cells.
Blood Classified as connective tissue. Half its volume is plasma.
Organs Are anatomical & functional units made of 2 or more primary tissues
Organ Systems groups of organs working together to maintain homeostasis Integumentary Nervous Endocrine Skeletal Muscular Circulatory Immune GI Reproductive
Body Fluid Compartments Intracellular compartment—inside the cells Extracellular compartment---outside the cells Blood plasma—fluid portion of blood Tissue fluid or interstitial fluid—fluid that bathes the cells within the body organs
Created by: ryn73500