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Bus 391 Midterm

QuestionAnswer
Management Information Systems the academic discipline covering the application of people, technologies, procedures-collectively called information systems- to solve business problems
Roles of Info Technology in an Organization reduce costs, improve productivity, improve customer satisfaction/loyalty, create competitive advantage, generate growth, streamline supply chain, global expansion
Five forces Model (definition) (for evaluating industry attractiveness) analyzes the competitive forces within the environment in which a company operates to assess the potential for profitability in an industry
Five Forces Model Threat of substitute products or services, buyer power, threat of new entrants, supplier power, rivalry among existing competitors
Five Forces Model: How IT relates to Buyer power loyalty programs: need computers to keep track of all frequent flyer miles to keep customers loyal to one airline
Five Forces Model: How IT relates to Supplier Power us MIS to use internet to do research on cancer fighting drugs
Five Forces Model: How IT relates to Threat of Substitute Products/Services using video conferencing instead of traveling (substitute for an airplane ticket)
Five Forces Model: How IT relates to Threat of New Entrants ex: new banks need to offer ATMs, online banking, online bill paying... all MIS services
Five Forces Model: How IT relates to Rivalry Among Existing Competitors amazon tracks what you buy so it can offer you more things that are like what you just bought
Central Processing Unit CPU- the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together
Primary Storage Random Access Memory (RAM), cache memory, read-only memory (ROM)
Secondary storage equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long term storage (hard drive, memory card, CD)
input devices equipment used to capture info and commands (keyboard, scanner)
output devices equipment used to see, hear, or accept results of info processing requests (monitor, printer)
communication devices equipment used to send info and receive if from one location to another (modem)
CPU control unit interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do
CPU arithmetic-logic unit ALU addition, subtraction, and all logical operations (like sorting and comparing numbers)
database maintains info about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
entity (in the relational database model) a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about with information is stored
attributes (fields or columns) are characteristics or properties of an entity class
primary key a field or group of fields that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
foreign key a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide logical relationships between two tables
database management system DBMS) software through which users and application programs interact with a database
data warehouse a logical collection of information- gathered from many different operational databases- that supports business analysis activities and decision making tasks
data mart contains a subset of data warehouse information (more specific than warehouse, like just pertaining to finance, or production, etc.)
ETL extraction, transformation, and loading: process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions and loads the information into a data warehouse
characteristics of high-quality information accuracy, completeness, consistency, uniqueness, timeliness
sources of low-quality information online cust enter inaccurate info to protect their privacy, diff systems have diff info entry standards and formats, call center operators enter abb. info by accident or to save time, 3rdparty/external info contains inconsitent, inaccurat and errors
benefits of maintaining high-quality information improve chances of making good decisions AND directly increase an organization's bottom line
advantages of relational databases (describe) increased flexibility, increased scalability and performance, reduced info redundancy, increased info integrity (quality), increased info security
network a communications, data exchange, and resource sharing system created by linking two or more computers and establishing standards, or protocols so that they can work together
telecommunication systems enable transmission of data over public or private networks
protocols a standard that specifies the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission (simply: for one computer to talk to another, they need to be speaking the same language)
packet nature of internet (describe) sending computer divides message into packets, each contains address of destination, sent on network, intercepted by routers,sent on way, arrive at destination (though may be from different physical paths to get there)
TCP/IP Protocol (describe) provides the technical foundation for the Internet. TCP provides transport functions, ensuring,that the amount of data received is the same as the amount transmitted. IP provides the addressing and routing mechanism that acts as a postmaster
why is encryption important? because as the information gets passed from router to router people are able to intercept it but if it is encrypted, they will be unable to access the information without the key
fiber optic cables (describe) transmit info as light impulses along a glass wire or fiber. because it is light, it is not subject to interference but it difficult to install, split and is fragile. used when transmitting data over long distances
business process standardized set of activities that accomplish a specific task such as processing a customer's order
customer facing processes result in a product or service that is received by an organization's external customers
business facing processes invisible to the external customer but essential to the effective management of the business and include goal setting, day-to-day planning, performance feedback, rewards, and resource allocation
continuous process improvement model attempts to understand and measure the currect process and make performance improvements accordingly (document process, establish measures, follow process, measure performance, identify and implement improvements)
business process re-engineering the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises.throw out old and start from scratch (set project scope, study competition, create new processes, implement solution)
SDLC (steps) Systems development life cycle: planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, maintenance
SDLC (steps) -Planning identify and select the system for development, asses project feasibility, develop the project plan
SDLC (steps) -Analysis gather business requirements, create process diagrams, perform a buy versus build analysis
SDLC (steps) -design design the IT infrastructure, design systems models
SDLC (steps) -development develop the IT infrastructure, develop the database and programs
SDLC (steps) -testing write the test conditions, perform the system test
SDLC (steps) -implementation determine implementation method, provide training for the system users, write detailed user documentation
SDLC (steps) -maintenance build a help desk to support the system users, perform system maintenance, provide an environment to support system changes
data flow diagram illustrates the movement of information between external entities and the processes and data stores within the system
entity relationship diagram a technique for documenting the relationships between entities in a database environment (things we made in visio)
four major components of DBMS forms, tables, queries, reports
Created by: mbarnum3