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E&I respiration

Week 1 - external and internal respiration

Why is external respiration carried out? To meet the respiratory demands of cells
What is internal respiration? The absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide from those cells
What are the three steps involved in external respiration? Pulmonary ventilation, gas diffusion and transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Why does the parietal pleura follow the ribs when they move up and down? When the ribs move upwards and outwards during inspiration the parietal fluid follows them. Due to the cohesion of water, the visceral pleura follows the parietal pleura and this stretches the alveoli along with the lungs, so the entire lung expands
What is the intrapleural pressure? A slight vacuum between the two pleura which usually measures -4mmHg and drops to -6mmHg during inspiration
What makes air flow into the lungs? Pressure gradient between the atmospheric pressure, intrapleural pressure, and intrapulmonary pressure
What causes expiration? Elastic recoil of the thoracic cage. This compresses the lungs and raises the intrapulmonary pressure to about +3mmHg so air flows down its pressure gradient out of the lungs
What is Boyle's law? The pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume (assuming a constant temperature)
What is Charles' law? the volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (assuming a constant temperature)
What is Dalton's law? The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases
What is Henry's law? At the air-water interface, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air (assuming a constant temperature)
What are the 9 accessory respiratory muscles? Internal intercostal, sternocleidomastoid, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor, scalene, transverse thoracis, transverse abdominis, external and internal oblique, rectus abdominis muscle
Which muscles are used during inhalation? -Contraction of diaphragm flattens floor of thoracic cavity, increasing its volume -Contraction of the external intercostal muscles raise the ribs -Contraction of the accessory muscles can assist the external intercostal muscles in elevating the ribs
What muscles can be used during exhalation? Internal intercostal and transversus thoracic muscles depress the ribs. The abdominal muscles can assist the intercostal muscles in exhalation by compressing the abdomen
What muscle elevates the sternum? Sternocleidomastoid muscle
What do the scalenes do? Fix or elevate the first or second ribs
What muscle elevates ribs 3-5? Pectoralis minor
Which muscles depress ribs 1-11 and narrow the thoracic cavity? Internal intercostal muscles
What are the two different modes of breathing? Quite breathing (eupnea) and Forced breathing
Which muscles are involved during quiet breathing? Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
What are the different types of quiet breathing? Diaphragmatic (deep breathing) and Costal (shallow breathing)
What happens during diaphragmatic breathing? Contraction of the diaphragm provides necessary changes in thoracic volume. Air is drawn into the lungs as the diaphragm contracts, air is exhaled passively when the diaphragm relaxes
What happens during costal or shallow breathing? Thoracic volume changes because the rib cage alters its shape. Inhalation takes place when contractions of the external intercostal muscles raise the ribs and enlarge the thoracic cavity. Exhalation takes place passively when these muscles relax
What is elastic rebound? Expansion of the lungs stretches their elastic fibres and elevation of the ribcage stretches opposing skeletal muscles and elastic fibres in the connective tissues of the body wall. When the muscles of inhalation relax, the elastic components recoil
What is forced breathing? (Hypernea) Accessory organs assist with inhalation, and exhalation involves contraction of the internal intercostal muscles
When do the abdominal muscles take part in exhalation? At absolute maximum levels of forced breathing - they contract to durther reduce the volume of the thoracic cavity
What are the oxygen needs of the body at rest? 250 ml/min
What is the carbon dioxide production of the body at rest? 200 ml/min
What connective tissue fibres are responsible for the elastic recoil of the lung? Collagen and (particularly) elastin
What is Ppl? What is Palv? What is Patm? Ppl= pleural pressure Palv = alveolar pressure Patm = atmospheric pressure
Is Ppl or Palv more negative? Pleural pressure will be negative with respect to alveolar pressure
What is functional residual capacity? The lung volume at the point where respiratory muscles are relaxed
Describe the pressures at functional residual capacity? Palv= Patm so no air flow
What pressure is necessary for inspiration? Patm>Palv
What pressure is necessary for expiration? Palv>Patm
What is airway resistance proportional to? lenfth/radius^4
How can you calculate pulmonary ventilation? tidal volume x respiration rate (Vt x f)
What is the typical anatomical dead space value? 0.15L
Created by: Sandersem2



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