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aphasia as review

stead review aphasia

what is the longitudinal fissure comprised of two large bundles of axons known as corpus callosum
what does it mean that the brain controls information contralaterally? left brain controls right side
what is hemiparesis? when one side of the body is weak due to damage
what is it when one side of the body is paralyzed hemiplegia
what does damage to the frontal lobe result it, sometimes? (9) loss of: simple movement, ability to spontaneously interact, flexible thinking and porblemsoving skills perseveration (uber concentration) inability to focus on a task change in personality inability to speak inability to sequence complex movements.
what does damage to the temporal lobe result in? (8) difficulty understanding spoken words poor selective attention for information short term memory loss interference with longterm memory + or - interest in sexual behavior inability to categorize objects persistent talking (logorrhea) Increased aggressive behavior
what is difficulty recognizing faces called and where does the damage happen? prosopagnosia and the temporal lobe
alexia what is and where does the damage come from problems with reading parietal lobe
agraphia what is and where does the damage come from difficulty writing words parietal lobe
word blindness what is and where does the damage come from inability to recognize words parietal lobe
dyscalculia what is and where does the damage come from difficulty with math parietal lobe
what are some general issues with damage to the parietal lobe? (7) drawing objects knowing left from right lack of awareness of specific body parts unilateral neglect inability to focus visual attention difficulties with eye-hand coordination impaired perception of touch
what are some impairments that result from damage to the occipital lobe visual field cuts difficulty locating objects in the environment difficulty recognizing objects drawn imability to recognize movement of an object difficulty identifying colors visual illusions or inaccurately seeing objects word blindness difficulty reading and writing
what is teh insula have related to speech and language skills sensory and motor functions
what are some functions of the cerebellum? related to balance and coordinating movements, especially for automatic sequenced motor skills.
what does the brain receive it's blood supply from? the carotid and vertebral basilar arteries
what are the brances of teh carotid arterial system 1. left and right brances 2. each branch divides into internal and external carotid arteries
what do the internal carotids subdivide into? (3) anterior cerebral artery (ACA) Middle cerebral Artery (MCA) Posterior cerebral artery (PCA
How is the forebrain supplied with blood? which arteries? the internal carotid arteries at the circle of willis branch off and form the ACA and MCA to supply blood to the forebrain
what provides blood to the posterior cortex, midbrain, brainstem? the PCA, basilar and vertebral arteries all form the posterior circulation
where is the Circle of Willis? the base of the brain
why is the Circle of Willis so important? (2) because it allows blood to flow through both hemispheres of the brain is a safety valve if blood to the brain is blocked on one side.
what is a CVA cerebral vascular accident
why (what classifies as) does a CVA occur? a CVA occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to any area of the brain. any interruption of blood flow that affects normal function
what is the 3rd most common cause of death in teh us and what is the mortality rate (4) CVA 33% It is the leading cause of disability in the us 550,000 strokes/CVAs happen anually
what comprises 80% of strokes ischemic attackes
what are the 4 subtypes of ischemic attaches 1. large artery atherothrombotic 2. small artery or lacunar strok 3. embolic stroke 4. Dissection stroke
what comprises 20% of strokes? hemorrhagic attackes
what are deep hypertensive hemorrhage and lobar hemorrhage intracerebral
what are subarachnoid hemorrage and other hemorrages? extracerebral intracranial
what are some features of hemorragic strokes (HA) 20% of all strokes are HS 50% mortality rate
where does HA occur inside the brain/intracerebral outside the brain/extracerebral >>>>>all these are still inside the skull
HA can be caused by? brain herniation massive edema use of cocaine
what are HA due to? (often) aneurysms leukemia clotting defieciency diet pills brain tumors
when is surgery typically performed for HA when the hemorrhage islarger than 3 CM
what type of aneurysm are the majority of HS due to? a ruptured berry aneurysm (congenital)
what are some factors predisposing someone in Ischemic Strokes (?) male age (meaning the mortality rate increases with age) family history of stroke
what are some medical conditions that predispose someone to stroke? hypertension atherosclerosis myocardial infarction diabetes prior transient ischemic (TIA) smoking excessive alcohol consumption
what do IS usually result from? thrombus embolism
what is a thrombus? a collection fo fat and blood from the diseased artery that narrows it and blocks the flow of blood going to the brain.
what is an embolism a blood clot containing arterial debris tha ttravels to a smaller artery and get stuck, blocking the flow of blood to the brain.
Created by: boone.pacific