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Preschool Language

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of Speech? Speech is a neuro muscular process of producing speech sounds for communication
What is the definition of Language? Language is a socially shared code for representing concepts through arbitrary symbols and the rules that govern those symbols
What is the definition of Communication? Communication is the process of encoding, transmitting, and decoding signals to exchange information and ideas.
Differentiate between speech, language, and communication. Speech is the neuro muscular process for producing sounds for communication. Communication is the the process of encoding, transmitting, and decoding signals that are comprised of arbitrary symbols and rules that represent concepts (e.g., language).
Differentiate between content, form and use Content (semantics), Form (syntax, morphology, phonology), Use (pragmatics)
What is linguistic competence? How language is understood
What is linguistic performance? Speech
What is communication competence? Pragmatics, Linguistic competence + performance, how to use it
What is the zone of proximal development? This is the difference between what a child cannot do with help and what a child can do on his/her own.
What is Schema? This is a concept, mental category, cognitive structure (e.g., dog)
What is Assimilation? This is the inclusion of new stimulus into an existing schema (e.g., German Shepard)
What is Accommodation? This is the development of a new schema (e.g., cat)
What is Equilibrium? This is the balance between assimilation and accommodation, balance
Describe the process of how schema, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium work together. A child will develop a schema based on input they encounter. As the receive more input they add new information into their existing schema. They may develop a new schema for new information. Equilibrium is the balance between it all.
What are Piaget's stages of development? 1. Sensorimotor Intelligence 0-2 yrs - reflexive motor 2. Preoperational thought 2-7 yrs - conceptual thinking/solving problems 3. Concrete operations 7-11 yrs - logical thinking 4. Formal operations 11-15 yrs - abstract thinking
What are the sub-stages of the the Sensorimotor stage of development (according to Piaget)? 1. 0-4 m: Reflexive 2. 4-8 m: Coordinating - exploration/grasping 3. 8-12 m: Intentional 4. 12-18 m: Explores - means end, walking, moving 5. 18-24 m: Functional - problem solving
How is language related to cognition? Certain cognitive attainments are needed in order for a child to develop language concepts. For example, without a sense of object permanence, a child would have difficulty understanding early semantic functions.
Cognition: Object permanence Language: Early semantic funtions
Cognition: Causality Language: Development of verbs
Cognition: Means-end Language: Development of communicative intentionality, related to 2-word utterances
Cognition: Imitation Language: Related to naming and gestures
Cognition: Play Language: Related to object play and language
Explain how each element of cognition is related to language. Just explain it. Use lots of good words.
What are stages of symbolic play? 1. 18-21 months: autosymbolic 2. 21-24 months: act on something else 3. 24 months: true symbolic play
Semantic development: Age - 12 months Words understood: 3-50 Words produced: 1st word
Semantic development: Age - 18 months Words understood: 200 Words produced: 50
Semantic development: Age - 24 months Words Produced: 200-300
Semantic development: Age - 3 years Words produced: 900-1000
Semantic development: Age - 4 years Words produced: 1500
Semantic development: Age - 5 years Words produced: 5000
What is contextualized comprehension? This is comprehension that is tied to the environment. For example, a child would need gestures/pointing to an object in order to understand what is being communicated. It begins around 8 months.
What is linguistic comprehension? This is comprehension that is based on words alone. The child does not need any external signals or cues to understand what the word spoken means.
How do you calculate MLU? 50-100 utterances MLU = total number of morphemes/total number of utterances
What counts as 2 morphemes? (1) Possessives: e.g., Sally's (2) plurals: e.g., cookies (3) third-person: e.g, walks (4) regular past tense: e.g, walked (5) present progressive: e.g, walking
What counts as 1 morpheme? 1. Compound words: birthday 2. Proper names: little bear 3. Ritualized reduplication:night-night 4. Recurrences of words for emphasis: NoNo 5. Irregular past tense: went 6. Diminutives: doggie 7. Axillary verbs & catenatives: 8. Irregular plurals
What are the different types of morphemes? 1. Free: lexical (happy, cat) and functional (the, in) 2. Bound: Inflectional (modifies tense, e.g,walks, jumping) and Derivational (changes meaning, e,g., slowness, slowly)
Acquisition of Brown's grammatical morphemes: Early 1. Progressive -ing: mom walkING 2. Plural -s: catS 3. Preposition in: IN house (1-3 age: 27-30 months) 4. Preposition on: ON table 5. Possessive 's: Katie'S chair (4-5 age - 31-34 months)
Acquisition of Brown's grammatical morphemes: Middle 1. Regular past tense -ed: mommy walkED 2. Irregular past tense:: he WENT 3. Regular 3rd person singular - s: Sarah swingS 4. Articles a, the, an: THE kitty 5. Contractible copula be: He is sad, He's sad Ages 43-46 months
Acquisition of Brown's grammatical morphemes: Late 1. Contractible auxiliary: He IS running, he'S running 2. Uncontractible copula be: he WAS here 3. Uncontractible auxiliary: she WAS going to school 4. Irregular 3rd person: he HAS 3 cookies Ages 47-50 months
Brown's Stages of Language Development: Stage one MLU: 1.0-2.0 Age: 12-36 months Big idea: Semantic relations Agent-action (doggie sit), action-object (drink juice), agent-object (baby shoe), action-location (put table), entity-location (dolly chair), possessor-possession (my doll), - etc*.
Brown's Stages of Language Development: Stage 2 MLU: 2.0-2.5 Age: 27-30 months Big idea: Grammatical morphemes
Brown's Stages of Language Development: Stage 3 MLU: 2.5-3.0 Age: 31-34 months Big idea: Simple sentence forms Negatives (places no/not between the subject and predicate), yes/no questions, WH-questions, imperative form (pick me up!)., *details p. 6
Brown's Stages of Language Development: Stage 4 MLU: 3.0-3.5 Age: 35-40 months Big idea: Embedding phrases/clauses Sentences: Begining to use prepositional phrases, use and to conjoin words. Embedding one clause into another. *details p. 10, lecture 3
Brown's Stages of Language Development: Stage 5 MLU: 3.5-4.0 Age: 41-46 months Big idea: Conjoining clauses Sentences (embeds relative clauses into object position of sentences). Conjoins clauses, usually using "and".
What are the phrasal constituents? Noun, pronoun, main verb, auxiliary verb, copula, adjective, adverb, preposition
What is a clause? A syntactic structure that has a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE
What are the clausal constituents? Subject, verb, object, complement, adverb (e.g., Big (adj.) truck (noun) go (verb)
How are independent clauses conjoined? With coordinating conjunctions and adverbial conjuncts (FANBOYS, however, therefore, etc.)
What are the types of dependent clauses? Noun: She is (who she is) Adjective: Luke called (the woman who lives next door) Adverbial: I will leave (after I finish the laundry)
What is an infinitive? to + verb
What is a participle? A verb used as an adjective (e.g., being of sound mind, she wrote her will, etc.)
What is a gerund? Verb used as a noun (e.g., playing the piano is fun)
Created by: aly435