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Patho. Ch. 4

Cell Injury, Aging, and Death

Are disease and injury cellular in nature? Yes.
Although pathologic processes present themselves in terms of systemic effects and manifestations, what is ultimately affected? The cells that make up the system. Even cancer is ultimately due to alterations in cell function.
Do cells have efficient ways to cope with an altered cellular environment? Yes, there are 3 ways to respond.
What are the 3 ways to respond to a cell's environmental change or injury? -If the cell is mild or short-lived, it may withstand the assault and completely return to normal-->reversible cell injury. -The cell may adapt to persistent but sub-lethal injury by changing its structure or function-->generally reversible.-Cell death ma
Is cell death reversible or irreversible? Irreversible.
What are the two categories for irreversible cell death? Necrosis and Apoptosis
What is Necrosis? Cell death by external injury.
What is Apoptosis? Pathologic process associated with significant tissue damage.
What is Dry Gangrene? A form of coagulative necrosis characterized by blackened, wrinkled tissue that is separated by adjacent healthy tissue by an obvious line of demarcation. Usually occurs in the extremities.
What is Wet Gangrene? Liquefactive necrosis that is typically found in internal organs. It appears black and cold and may be foul smelling due to the presence of bacteria.
Rapid spread of tissue damage and release of toxins in the blood stream make what type of gangrene life threatening? Wet Gangrene
What is Gas Gangrene? Characterized by the formation of bubbles of gas in damaged muscle tissue. It is due to infection of necrotic tissue by anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium).
These bacteria produce toxins and degradative enzymes that allow the infection to spead rapidly through the necrotic tissue. Clostridium (Gas Gangrene)
May be fatal if not managed rapidly and aggressively. Gas Gangrene
A natural occurrence of cellular suicide that does not show inflammation. Apoptosis
When can tissue and organ function be impaired? When the rate of Apoptosis is greater than the rate of cellular replacement. All destruction is contained within an intact cell membrane and the cell remnants are then assimilated by neighbor cells.
Created by: shanhaup