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Patho. Ch. 1 cont.

Pathophysiologic Concepts

Usually occurs as a result of ischemia or toxic injury Necrosis
What is Necrosis characterized by? -Cell rupture-Spilling of contents into the extracellular fluid and blood (this triggers release of certain enzymes depending on the location of the cell death).
What do elevated levels of amylase, creatine-MB, and troponin indicate? Damage to the pancrease and cellular death in the heart. *Enzymes tell if there is cell death.
Necrosis Inflammation (general malaise, elevated WBC count, loss of appetite)
What are the 4 types of tissue Necrosis Coagulative, Liquefactive, Fat, Caseous
Coagulative Heart tissue, kidney
Liquefactive Brain
Fat Pancreas
Caseous Lung
Cellular death involving a large area of tissue. Usually results from interruption of major blood supply to a specific body part, such as toes, leg, or bowel. Gangrene
Types of Gangrene Dry-lower extremitiesWet-internal organsGas-blood stream
This type of adaptation usually occurs in cells that DO NOT UNDERGO mitotic division, sucha s differintiated muscle cells. Hypertrophy
How can cells capable of mitotic division adapt? Hyperplasia
Usually results from increased physiologic demands or hormonal stimulation. Hyperplasia
An example of Hyperplasia Elevated number of red blood cells in response to high altitude and liver enlargement in response to drug detoxification.
What does the chronic irritation of epithelial cells result in? Calluses and/or corns (chronic friction)
What can Estrogen lead to? An increase in enothelial and uterine stomal cells. This is why women on birth control have an increased risk for uterine cancer.
Replacement of one differentiated cell type with another. Metaplasia
Usually occurs wiht adaptation to persistent injury. Fully reversible when agent causing the injury is removed. Often involves replacement of glandular epithelium with squamous epithelium. Can occur with smoking. Metaplasia
Disorganized appearance of cells (abnormal variations in size, shape, and arrangement). Represents adaptation that has gone wrong. Usually has a greater potential to develop into cancer. Dyplasia
Occurs when cells shrink and reduce functions in response to a variety of normal and injurious factors. Can be attributed by more than one cause. Atrophy
Causes of Atrophy Disuse, denervation, ischemia, nutrient starvation, interruption of endocrine signals, persistent cell injury, and aging
Disuse Immobilization by bedrest, casting of an extremity results in shrinkage. Resumes normal size when active again.
Denervation Loss of nerve stimulation. Paraylysis can occur because no nerve impulses exist.
Ischemia Inadequate blood supply to the tissues. If present in lower there is poor circulation which leads to thin skin, muscle wasting, and loss of hair.
Common sites of Ischemia Heart, brain, kidneys, and lower leg.
Nutrient Starvation Due to poor intake, absorption, or distribution to the tissues.
Interruption of endocrine signals Glandular tissues such as the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and testicles depend on growth-stimulating signals to maintain size and function.
Persistent cell injury Chronic inflammation and infection
Increase in cell mass accompanied by an augumented functional capacity. Hypertrophy
What is cell Hypertrophy? A response to increased demands. Hypertrophy usually subsides when the demand has decreased or is removed, but not always.
What does cellular enlargement result from? A net increase in cellular protein content.
Do fat cells replicate? No
Created by: shanhaup



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