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Micro2 - Enterococcu

Microbiololgy 2 practice test: enterococcus and more, DelTech Owens

QuestionAnswer
Most Enterococcus are gram (pos or neg?) and (alpha, beta, or gamma?) hemolytic? gram positive, alpha hemolytic (or sometimes nonhemolytic)
Enterococcus are the normal flora of the __ __ of humans and animals and belong in Lancefield group __. GI tract, Lancefield group D
What kind of catalase reaction do Enterococcus have? catalase negative or pseudocatalase (slight bubbling)
Enterococcus are always bile esculin (pos or neg?) and PYR (pos or neg?). Bile esculin positive, PYR positive.
Enterococcus can grow under extreme conditions, including __% NaCl, __ degrees Celsius, and __ pH. 6.5% NaCl (salty), 10-45 degrees Celsius, alkaline pH (with a pH greater than 7)
Enterococcus are multi-drug resistant. This means they can even resist what specific drug? Vancomycin
Enterococcus is an opportunistic pathogen. Most infections are __. nosocomial
What 5 conditions can allow Enterococcu to become pathogenic? 1. UTI 2. renal dialysis 3. immunocompromised 4. another underlying disease 5. prolonged hospitalization (immobilized for along time)
Enterococcus rarely infects what part of the respiratory tract? upper - it is more likely to infect the lower respiratory tract
Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that often occur in __ or short __and are difficult to distinguish from streptococci on physical characteristics alone.. pairs (diplococci), short chains
Two species of Enterococcus are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: Name them both. 1. E. faecalis 2. E. faecium
Enterococci are capable of cellular respiration in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments. This means they can be described as ? facultative anaerobic organisms
Does Enterococcus form spores? no
Sensitive strains of Enterococcus bacteria can be treated with what 3 antibiotics? ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin.
The bile esculin test can be used to differentiate Group D strep and enterococci from ? non-Group D viridans strep
Many bacteria can hydrolize esculin, but Group D strep AND enterococci can hydrolyze esculin in the presence of __, which few others can do. bile
A postive bile esculin test turns what color? black
A positive PYR test turns what color? pink or red
When running a bile esculin test, the bile is added to inhibit Gram __ bacteria other than Group D strepand enterococci. positive
You don't need to worry too much about Corynebacterium dipthoids. It's the Corynebacterium __ that presents the bigger clinical threat. diphtheriae
Corynebacterium diptheriae are gram __ rods that gather into groups known as a __ (meaning they tend to line up side by side). positive rods, palisade or Chinese letters
One tell-tale sign of a Corynebacterium diptheriae infection is the formation of a __ in the throat and upper mouth. pseudomembrane
Corynebacterium diptheriae produce a toxin called __ toxin that affects the upper respiratory and GI tract. diphtheria
Corynebacterium spp. will grow on media containing what? Cystine tellurite and Tinsdale's agar
What do Corynebacterium spp. look like on media with Cystine tellurite? Gray to black colored metachromic granules
What do Corynebacterium diphtheira look like on Tinsdale's agar? black with dark brown halos (NOTE: other Corynebacterium will not form brown halos on this media, only diphtheria)
What can Corynebacterium diptheriae form on the skin? non-healing ulcers
Pleomorphic bacterial rods have what sort of shape? bent
Listeria monocytogenes are gram __ pleomorphic rods that form __-hemolytic colonies on BAP. positive rods, beta-hemolytic
Listeria monocytogenes are catalase __ and bile eschulin __. positive, positive
Listeria monocytogenes are motile and move in what way? tumble
One of the most obvious signs of Listeria monocytogenes is ? tumbling or cartwheel movement
Listeria monocytogenes can be found almost anywhere. They are used in what sort of food production? dairy and deli
Listeria monocytogenes presents the worst threat to what group of people? unborn babies
To kill Listeria monocytogenes, do you go hot or cold? hot
What is the most common manifestation of Listeria monocytogenes? meningitis
What kind of operation presents a serious risk of Listeria monocytogenes infection to a patient? renal transplant
Neonatal listeriosis takes on what 2 forms and what periods do these forms occur in the life of the neonate? 1. early onset: bith or within 3 days 2. late onset: occurs 1-4 days after birth
Early onset listeriosis causes the neonate to suffer from what diseases? 1. pneumonia 2. sepsis
Late onset listeriosis causes the neonet to suffer from what disease? meningitis
One sign of meningitis in an infant is ? stiff neck
How can you treat Listeria monocytogenes? 3 drugs. 1. penicillin 2. ampicillin 3. tetracycline
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae has a very __ shape and is a gram __ bacteria. pleomorphic or wiggly, gram positive
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae will grow on what 4 kinds of media? 1. BAP 2. CHOC 3. CNA 4. PEA
How do Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae colonies look on a BAP? small light green colonies
Which has longer and thinner rods. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae or listeria? Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae are most often seen in __ infections but can appear in the respiratory tract on rare occasions. wound or skin
After 48 hours, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae will form __ or __ hemolytic colonies. alpha or gamma hemolytic
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is catalase __, motility __, and is known as an animal pathogen. negative, negative
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae produces what on an iron (TSI) agar? H2S
What kind of animal can Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae be found on (as well as on humans who handle that animal)? pigs and waterborne animals like fish, turtles, dolphins, etc.
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae forms lesions on pigs in what shape? diamond
What are 2 serious consequences of an untreated Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae lesion in humans? 1. bacteremia 2. endocarditis (Remember that it can go systemic!)
Lactobacillus forms gram positive rods that are what length and what shape? length medium to long, form is straight chains
Lactobacillus can grow on what 2 kinds of media? 1. BAP 2. CHOC
Lactobacillus colonies are __ or __ hemolytic. alpha or gamma hemolytic (usually alpha)
How does Lactobacillus handle oxygen? Lactobacillus is a facultative anaerobe, an anaerobe, or microaerophilic
Is Lactobacillus usually pathogenic? no; it's an opportunistic normal flora
Lactobacillus is a normal flora of the ? female genito-urinary tract
Lactobacillus is catalase __ and motile or nonmotile? catalase negative, nonmotile
Lactobacillus is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause what 4 conditions? 1. endocarditis 2. bacteremia 3. pneumonia 4. meningitis
Nocardia belong to which group/phyla? Actinomycetes
Nocardia are gram __ rods that are partially __ __. gram positive rods, partially acid fast
Nocardia look like long __ rods that often have a __ appearance. long branchy rods, beaded appearance
Nocardia is a bacteria that has some characteristics of what other organism? fungi
What sort of stain should you use to see Nocardia clearly under a microscope? Modified Kinyoun stain
Nocardia colonies often take on a branching __ form and can look like __ flakes. filamentous form, oatmeal flakes
How do Nocardia handle oxygen? They are aerobic
Nocardia can be found where (aside from the body). soil and water
Nocardia is a plant __ that can affect immunocompromised patients. decomposer
Nocardia are __ microflora found in healthy gingiva as well as periodontal pockets. oral
What disease is named for Nocardia? nocardiosis
Nocardia can cause pulmonary diseases leading to lung __ similar to TB. abscesses
Nocardia can travel through the body by what means? bloodstream
Nocardia can form chronic subcutaneous infections in the skin called ? mycetomas
Actinomyces are gram __ branching rods that are NOT __ __. gram positive, NOT acid fast
How does Actinomyces like oxygen? It's anaerobic
While Nocardia tends to look like dry oatmeal flakes, Actinomyces are ? wet and shiny, white or grey
Actinomyces can be a normal flora where in the body? oral cavity and GI tract
Actinomyces usually only becomes pathogenic after ? trauma
What kind of patients are usually affected by Actinomyces? immunocompromised or those who leave in an IUD too long
Actinomyces can cause "lumpy jaw," otherwise known as ? cervicofacial Actinomyces
Actinomyces can not only infect the jaw, it can also infect the __ due to spread of cervicofacial and abdominal infection. the chest
Biochemically, Enterobacteriacaea are gram-negative rods that ferment glucose, reduce nitrate to __, and are oxidase __. reduce nitrate to nitrite, are oxidase negative.
Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis are only found in humans and cause what kind of infections? upper respiratory
Bordetella bronchiseptica is found in __. animals (dogs, cats, swine, rabbits)
To obtain a specimen of B. pertussis from a patient, you would swab what area? nasopharyngeal
B. pertussis is an encapsulated, gram __ coccobacilli. negative
Colonies of B. pertussis will grow on what 3 kinds of media? Bordet-Gengou, Regan-Lowe, Modified John-Kendrick
When colonies of B. pertussis are grown on Bordet-Gengou media, they resemble droplets of __. mercury
B. pertussis cannot be identified using __. biochemicals
Serological identification of B. pertussis can made using what techniques? DFA (direct fluorescent antibody) stain and EIA (enzyme immunoassay)
B. pertussis is a cause of what disease? Whooping cough
Mild cold symptoms lasting several days are signs of the __ stage of Whooping cough/pertusis. Catarrhal
During the Catarrhal stage of Whooping cough, B. pertussis bacteria is easily transmitted through __. aerosols
Episodes of severe, violent, repetitive coughing lasting 1-4 weeks are signs that Whooping cough has reached the __ stage. paroxysmal
Symptoms of Whooping cough slowly decrease, taking as long as 6 months to disappear completely. This is the __ stage. convalescent
How do you treat Whooping Cough? erythromycin
What are the 4 species of Brucella spp that are pathogenic to humans and what animals do they come from? 1. B. abortus (cattle) 2. B. suis (pigs) 3. B. mellitensis (goats and sheep) 4. B. canis (dogs)
Specimens that can are useful in identifying Brucella spp. can come from what 5 body parts? 1. blood 2. bone marrow 3. lymph nodes 4. liver 5. spleen
Brucella spp. is a level __ pathogen. 3
Brucella spp. are gram __ coccobacilli or short rods. negative
Brucella spp. are __ staining. faintly
Brucella spp. are all facultative __ parasites. intracellular
What 4 kinds of media can be used to plate Brucella spp? 1. BAP 2. CHOC 3. MTM 4. BCYE
Blood cultures of Brucella spp. should be subcultured to __ media. CHOC
Brucella spp. should be incubated in a __ environment. capnophilic (CO2)
Negative cultures of Brucella spp. should be held for __ days before discarding. 21
Brucella spp. are catalase __ and oxidase __. positive, positive
Brucella spp. are urease __ and H2S __. positive, positive
The oxidase test identifies organisms (like Brucella spp.) that produce __ oxidase. cytochrome
The enzyme in an oxidase test will convert the substrate to __. indophenol
During the urease test, the enzyme urease hydrolyzes urea to __. ammonia
The formation of ammonia during the urease test shifts the pH (up or down?) up
The pH indicator of the urease test is __ __, which is red at neutral pH but turns yellow at pH < 6.8. It also changes to magenta or hot pink at pH >8.4. phenol red
The serum agglutination test for Brucella spp. uses cells from what species of Brucella? B. abortus
The serum agglutination test for Brucella spp. will detect antibodies from all human pathological species of Brucell spp. EXCEPT for __ __. B. canis
A positive urease test for Brucella will turn __ in color while a negative test result will be __. positive=pink; negative=yellow
Agglutinating antibodies that arise from infections with some microorganisms (like Brucella spp.) that induce fever are called ? febrile agglutinin
Brucella spp. can cause what disease in humans? Brucellosis
What are the main pathways of transmission of Brucella spp. to humans? 1. ingestion of contaminated milk produce 2. inhalation 3. penetration of ocular or oral mucosa 4. direct inoculation as from abrasions or vaccination
What 4 groups are at greatest risk of catching Brucella spp.? 1. dairy farmers 2. livestock handlers 3. vets 4. lab personnel
Symptoms of Brucella spp. are nonspecific, but can include what 7 things? 1. myalgia 2. headache 3. weight loss 4. sweats 5. fever (of unknown origin) 6. lymphadenopathy 7. splenomegaly
What are 4 complications of Brucella spp? 1. abscesses 2. arthritis 3. spondylitis (vertebral inflammation) 4. endocarditis
What combination of drugs can treat Brucella spp? 1. doxycycline 2. tetracycline 3. streptomycin < all in combination!
What single drug can be used to treat Brucella spp? Rifampin
Francisella tularensis is a pathogenic species of Gram __ bacteria and the causative agent of __. gram-negative, causes tularemia
Acceptable sources of lab specimens for Francisella tularensis come from what 3 areas of the body? 1. infected ulcers 2. lymph nodes 3. sputum
Francisella tularensis is a __ staining encapsulate coccobacilli. faintly
Francisella tularensis is an obligate __ and an __ pathogen. obligate aerobe, intracellular pathogen
What does Francisella tularensis require for growth on a plate? cystine and iron
What kind of plates are actually used to grow Francisella tularensis in the lab? 1. glucose cystine agar 2. CHOC supplemented with IsoVitale X or BCYE
Francisella tularensis is weakly catalase __ but oxidase __. catalase positive, oxidase negative
Francisella tularensis ferments some __. carbohydrates
Serological testing of Francisella tularensis include fluorescent __ stain and __ agglutinins. febrile
Francisella tularensis can be carried by what 4 animals? 1. rodents 2. rabbits 3. beavers 4. muskrats
Humans can be infected with Francisella tularensis by handling __ or __ of infected animals. carcasses, skin
Francisella tularensis can infect humans using __ as a vector or by being bitten by infected animals. insects
Francisella tularensis is a level 3 pathogen that can infect lab personnel by way of __. inhalation
Francisella tularensis is an extremely invasive intracellular parasite. Less than __ organisms are needed for infection by cutaneous or aerosol routes. 50
Name the 6 symptoms of infection by Francisella tularensis. 1. granulomatous lesions 2. fever 3. headache 4. chills 5. lymphadenopathy 6. pneumonia
How do you treat Francisella tularensis? Streptomycin
Pasteurella spp. is a gram __ coccobacilli that is encapsulated and needs __ staining with a __ __ appearance. gram negative, bipolar staining, safety pin
Pasteurella spp. colonies can grow on what 2 kinds of media? BAP and CHOC
What species of Pasteurella spp. is most often encountered? P. multocida
On BAP media, Pasteurella spp. is __-hemolytic and appears what color? non-hemolytic, gray
Pasteurella spp. needs what kind of environment to grow? capnophilic (CO2)
Pasteurella spp. colonies smell ? musty, like mushrooms
Pasteurella spp. is catalase __ and oxidase __ and nitrate __. catalase positive, oxidase positive, nitrate positive
What species of Pasteurella spp. has a rapid systems test available for identification? P. multocida
Pasteurella spp. can be spread to humans through ? animal bites
Pasteurella spp. can cause what kind of infections? wound and soft tissue infections
What is the treatment for Pasteurella spp.? penicillin
Legionella pneumophila are gram __ rods that are difficult to find in __. negative, sputum
To find Legionella pneumophila on a tissue biopsy, what stain should be used? Gimenez
Legionella pneumophila is extremely __ and may produce tiny colonies on what sort of media? extremely fastidious, CHOC
On BCYE media, it can take how many days for a colony to grow in a capnophilic environment? 3-4
What color is Legionella pneumophila colonies? gray-white; they are circular and glistening
Legionella pneumophila is weakly catalase __ and serological testing can be carried out with direct __ __. catalase positive, direct fluorescent antibody
Legionella pneumophila can be found in the environment and grows well in __ areas. moist areas (AC ducts, water cooling towers)
There are 2 forms of Legionellosis. Name them. 1. Legionaire's disease 2. Pontiac fever
Which is more dangerous. Legionaire's disease of Pontiac fever? Legionaire's disease
The treatment for Legionella pneumophila is ? erythromycin
Created by: IsaacJ