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SB82 Nutrition

SB82 Nutrition -Loosely taken from Fiser's ABSITE review chapter 10 on Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
What is the daily caloric need? 25 kcal / kg/ day
A 10% lipid solution contains how many kcal per mL? 1.1 kcal / mL
What are the daily nutritional requirements for protein for an average male? 1 g protein / kg / day
What percentage of daily protein intake should be essential amino acids? 20%
What percentage of daily calories should be from fat? 30%
How much does trauma or sepsis increase the daily calorie requirement?(percentage) 20-40%
Pregnancy increases the daily calorie requirement by ___________ kcal / day 300
Lactation increases the daily calorie requirement by ___________ kcal / day 500
Equation for basal calorie expenditure in burns 25 kcal/kg/day + (30kcal/day x %burn)
Equation for basal PROTEIN requirement in burns 1.0-1.5 g protein/kg/day + (3g protein x %burn)
Basal metabolic rate increases by _______% for each degree above 38.0 OC ten
Main fuel for colonocytes _____________ SCFA
Main fuel for small bowel enterocytes ___________ Glutamine
Primary fuel for neoplastic cells ____________ Glutamine
Half-life of albumin _____________ 20 days
Half-life of transferrin _____________ 10 days
Half-life of prealbumin _____________ 2 days
Definition of respiratory quotient CO2 produced divided by O2 consumed
Respiratory quotient in pure fat metabolism 0.7
Respiratory quotient in pure carbohydrate metabolism 1.0
Main amino acid precursor for gluconeogenesis ______________ Alanine
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the _____________ in the late stages of starvation Kidney
The only two amino acids to increase during times of stress Alanine and phenylalanine
During normal metabolism, the brain primarily uses __________ for energy Glucose
During starvation, the brain primarily uses __________ for energy Ketones
Cachexia is mediated by ____________ TNF-alpha
Problems that occur during refeeding syndrome Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemis, hypophosphatemia, cardiac dysfunction, fluid shifts
How much protein do you need ot geet 1 gram of nitrogen? 6.25 g
Total protein synthesis for a healthy adult 70 kg male 250 g / day
Major breakdown products of skeletal muscle Glutamine, alanine
Medium and short-chain fatty acids enter enterocytes by this method _________ Simple diffusion
Medium and short-chain fatty acids are transported through the _________ Portal system
Long-chain fatty acids form __________________ before fusing with the enterocyte membrane during absorption Micelles
After micelles enter enterocytes, they form _______________ chylomicrons
Chylomicrons are transported to the systemic circulation via the ___________ Thoracic duct
Chylomicrons are cleared from the blood by _________________ on the liver endothelium Lipoprotein lipase
Short and medium-chain fatty acids are cleared from the blood by ______________, located on the liver endothelium Free fatty acid binding protein
The preferred source of energy for the liver, heart and skeletal muscle ____________ Fatty acids
Essential fatty acids include ___________ acid and ___________ acid Linoleic, linolenic
Essential fatty acids are needed for ________________ synthesis Prostaglandin
Omega-3 fatty acids are thought to have what beneficial properties? ______________ Antioxidant
Fructose is absorbed through this method __________ Facilitated diffusion
Glucose and galactose are absorbed through this method ___________ Secondary active transport
The sequence of enzymes involved in protein catabolism Pepsin -> trypsin -> chymotrypsin -> carboxypeptidase
Trypsinogen is released in inactive form by the pancreas, then activated to trypsin by ______________ Enterokinase
Enterokinase is released from which structure? _____________ Duodenum
Branched-chain amino acids (3) Leucine, isoleucine, valine
During the Cori cycle, glucose is converted to lactate in the muscle. Then lactate goes to the liver and is converted to _________ and eventually to glucose through gluconeogenesis. Pyruvate
Created by: StudyBug82