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rocks

rocks defintion test

TermDefinition
abrasive material any natural or artificial substance suitable for grinding, polishing, cutting or scouring
acicular crystals Crystals with a very elongated habit; needle-shaped
Aphanitic whose constituents are too small to be distinguished by the naked eye
Attitude a general term to describe the relation of a directional feature in a rock to a horizontal plane
Barite natural finely ground barium sulfate used for increasing the density of drilling fluids
Basalt a general term for dark colored iron and magnesium rich igneous rock. it is the principal rock type making up the ocean floor
Bedding plane surface separating each successive layer of stratified rock from the preceding or following layer. it often marks a change in the circumstances of deposition and may show a parting, a colour difference, or both.
Bedrock A term for solid rock that lies underneath soil or loose (unconsolidated0 sediment
Bentonite commercially available colloidal clay in powder or granular form largely made up of the mineral sodium montmorillonite, a hydrated aluminum silicate. swells when absorbs water
Calcareous Containing calcium carbonate
Canadian Shield a large area of exposed basement rocks in a craton, commonly with a very gently convex surface, surrounded by sediment covered platforms> The rocks of virtually all shield areas of Precambrian
Cementation the process by which clastic sediments are converted into rock by precipitation of mineral cement among the grains of the sediment
Cleavage The breaking of a mineral along its crystallographic planes, thus reflecting crystal structure
Colloid Extremely small solid particles, 0.0001 to 1 micron in size, which will not settle out of a solution; intermediate between a true dissolved particle and a suspended solid which will settle out of solution.
Conchoidal a curved fracture surface typical of glassy rocks such as obsidian or quartz
consolidated any process whereby loose, soft, or liquid earth materials become firm and coherent e.g the cooling of a lava or the cementation of a sand.
crystalline of or pertaining to the nature of a crystal; having regular molecular structure
crystallization the process by which matter becomes crystalline, from a gaseous, fluid, or dispersed state.
dendritic said of mineral that has crystallized in branching pattern
deposition the laying down of rock forming material by any natural agent e.g the mechanical settling of sediment from suspension in water.
detritus loose rock and mineral material produced by mechanical means, e.g. disintegration or abrasion, and removed from its place of origin
Deviation The departure of a drilled hole from being straight
dip the angle that a stratum or any planar feature makes with the horizontal, measured perpendicular to the strike and in vertical plane
drusy an irregular cavity or opening in a vein or rock, having its interior surface walls, encrusted with small projecting crystals, usually of the same minerals as those of the enclosing rock
effervescent the act or process of bubbling
erosion the physical removing of broken particles or sediments by running water
extrusive molten rock that reaches the earths surface
fault a discrete surface or zone of discrete surfaces separating two rock masses across which one has slid past the other
feldspar a group of abundant rock forming minerals which are the most widespread of any mineral group and constitute 60% of the earths crust
fish any object lost in the borehole
fissile capable of being easily split along closely spaced planes
fissures extensive cracks, breaks, or fractures in the rocks. May contain mineral bearing material
Folded Usually a product of deformation, but the definition does not specify manner of origin
foliated the planer arrangement of textural or structural features in any type of rock
foliation the banded appearance seen in metamorphic rocks such as gneiss
footwall the wall rock beneath an inclined vein or fault
fracture Breaks or rocks or soil due to folding or faulting
Gentlemen's Agreement an understanding or arrangement based on honour and not legally binding
Geological Time Scale An arbitrary chronological arrangement of geological events, commonly presented in chart form with the oldest event and time unit at the bottom and the youngest at the top
Hackly showing jagged points in showing jagged points in fracture
Hanging Wall The wall rock above an inclined vein or fault
Igneous Rocks that solidified from molten or partly molten material, that is, from magma
Intrusive those igneous rocks formed from magma injected beneath the earth's surface. generally these rocks have large crystals caused by slow cooling
Isopach A line drawn on map through points of equal true thickness of a designated stratigraphic unit or group of stratigraphic units
Karts Topography water moving through fractures in limestone has dissolved the rock, enlarging fractures and creating caverns. Characterized by sink holes, caves, and underground drainage
Laminated Consisting of very thin compositional layers. in sedimentary rocks, layers less then 1 cm thick
lava magma found on the earths surface and associated with extrusive igneous rocks
Lithification the conversion of newly deposited sediment into a sold rock, involving such processes as cementation, compaction, and crystallization
Magma naturally occurring molten rock material, generated within the earth and capable of intrusion and extrusion, from which igneous rocks have been derived through solidification and related processes.
massive Said of rocks of any origin that are more or less the same in structure, texture or fabric
Metamorphic any rock derived from pre-existing rocks by mineralogical,chemical, and/ or structural changes, essentially in the solid state in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment
Mohs Scale A standard of ten minerals by which the hardness of a mineral may be rated. the scale includes from softest to hardest: talc, gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, orthoclase, quartz, topaz, corundum, and diamond
Permeability the ability of an aquifer or water bearing formation to allow water to pass through it; the capacity of an aquifer to permit the movement of water. Also a measure of how easily water flows through a material.
pH a measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of water. Originally stood for the words "potential of hydrogen"
Phaneritic Said of the texture of an igneous rock in which the individual components are distinguishable with the unaided eye. refers to a coarse grained igneous rock that cooled slowly from magma
Plate Tectonics A theory of global tectonics in which the lithosphere is divided into a number of plates whose pattern of horizontal movement is that torsionally rigid bodies that interact with one another at their boundaries, causing seismic and tectonic activity
Polymer A substance formed by the union of two or more molecules of the same kind linked end to end into another compound having the same elements in the same proportion but a higher molecular weight and different physical properties
Porosity the percentage of voids or porous openings in rock soil that can be filled with water. an indication of how much water an aquifer can store.
Precipitate separate a substance out from a solution as a solid
Rock Cycle A sequence of events involving the formation alteration, destruction, and reformation of rocks as a result of such processes a magmatism, erosion, transportation, deposition, lithification, and metamorphism
Salted sample to place gold or any valuable ore in the ground or in a mine, in order to give a false impression of the richness of the property
sandstone sedimentary rock composed of abundant rounded or angular fragments of sand set in a fine grained matrix (silt or clay) and more or less firmly united by a cementing material
Schistosity the platly structure seen in some metamorphic rocks created by the formation of sheet-like minerals
sedimentary loose particles and fragments of rocks such as sand or gravel produced by weathering. Can be transported by wind, water, and ice to form sedimentary deposits that eventually lithify to form sedimentary rocks
shale fine grained sedimentary rocks, formed by the consolidation of clay, silt, or mud. it is characterized by finely laminated structure and is sufficiently indurate so that it will not fall apart on wetting
specific gravity the ratio of the wright of any volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of pure water
Strike the direction taken by a structural surface e.g. a bedding plane, as it intersects the horizontal
tensile strength the resistance of a material to a force tending to tear it apart
tight hole a drilling or completed well about which information is kept secret by the operator
unconsolidated formations of materials that is loose and soft such as sand, gravel, silt and clay. these formations are widely distributed and can possess good storage and water transmissivity characteristics
UTM universal transverse mercator
Vugs a small unfilled cavity in a rock, usually dolomite. These are created when limestone is transformed to dolomite during diagenesis
Vugular a small cavity in a vein or rock from the size of small pea upwards; it is usually used with reference to limestone
weathering the in-situ physical disintegration and chemical decomposition of rock materials at or near the earths surface
Wildcat Well an exploratory well drilled for oil or gas on a geological feature not yet proven to be productive, or in an unproven territory, or in a zone that has never produced or is not known to be productive in the general area
Created by: lully1994