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ClinChem2 Carbs

Review test about carbohydrates for Clinical Chemistry 2.

What are the 3 groups of carbohydrates? 1. monosaccharides 2. disaccharides 3. polysaccharides
Carbohydrates are either polyhydroxy __ or polyhydroxy __ or polymers of these compounds. polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones
Common names of carbohydrates end in ? ose
The number of __ determines the name of a carbohydrate. carbons
Monosaccharides are straight carbon chains in which each carbon atom, except __, carries a hydroxyl group (OH). one
On carbohydrates, the remaining carbon atom has a __ group. carbonyl
If the carbonyl group on a carbohydrate atom is on the 1st or last carbon, the carbonyl group will be called an __ and a monosaccharide will be called an __. aldehyde, aldose
If the carbonyl group is on an internal atom, it a __ and the monosaccharide is called a __. ketone, ketose
Monosaccharides can be oxidized or __ and can do the same to other compounds. reduced : monosaccharides can oxidize or reduce other compounds in turn.
What is the historic basis for chemical assays for glucose? The ability of aldoses to be oxidized to acid form.
Glucose reduces compounds like __ or __ with formation of colored complexe of their reduced forms. copper or ferriccyanide
Monosaccharides join to form __. dissaccharides
When monosaccharides join to form a disarccharides, a water molecule is __. generated
When disaccharides split, a molecule of __ is lost. water
Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of __. Where a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis , this is termed saccharification. water
What are the 3 disacharides? 1. sucrose 2. lactose 3. maltose
__ is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. sucrose
__ is a disaccharide composed of 2 glucoses. maltose
__ is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and galactose. lactose
What is formed when disaccharides and monosaccharides join? polysaccharide
The structural molecule in plants is called ? cellulose
The carbohydrate storage molecule in plants is called ? starch
The carbohydrate storage molecule in humans and other animals is called ? glycogen
What 2 monosaccharides form maltose? glucose + glucose
What 2 monosaccharides form sucrose? fructose + glucose
What 2 monosaccharides form lactose? glucose + galactose
Our cells generate ATP by breaking down __. carbohydrates
Most ATP production in the cells takes place within the __. mitochondria
The first steps of ATP actually take place in the __. cytoplasm
In glycolysis, 6-carbon glucose molecules are broken down into 3-carbon molecules of __. pyruvic acid
What is the net gain of glycolysis? 2 molecules of ATP
During glycolysis, each glucoe molecule is converted to two __ __ molecules. pyruvic acid
What kind of process is glycolysis? anaerobic
Once glucose has been turned into pyruvic acid as a result of glycolysis, the pyruvic acid can then enter the __ so it can combine with oxygen and form ATP. mitochondria
__ __ is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. Cellular respiration or aerobic metabolism
Mitochondria absorb pyruvic acid acid molecules and do what with them when in the presence of enough oxygen? break them down
Hydrogen ions formed by production of ATP are removed by ? coenzymes (NAD + FAD)
__ is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2). Decarboxylation
During decarboxylation, a pyruvic acid molecule FIRST loses 1 __ atom in a reaction involving NAD and Coenzyme A. carbon
Second during decarboxylation, as hydrogen ions are removed, carbon and oxygen are released as __. carbon dioxide
Decarboxylation produces 1 molecule of __, 1 __ and 1 __ __ __. CO2, NADH, Acetyl Coenzyme A
Acetyl coenzyme A can enter the __ __ as a result of decarboxylation. Krebs cycle
The Krebs cycle removes __ ions from organic molecules and moves them to __ which will enter the electron transport chain. hydrogen ions, coenzymes
The electron transport chain is a sequence of metalloproteins called __ embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. cytochromes
What 2 thngs leave the Krebs cycle to enter the electron transport chain? NADH and FADH2
After leaving the Krebs cycle, NADH and FADH2 transfer their hydrogen atoms to other ? coenzymes
After transferring their hydrogen atoms to other conenzymes, NADH and FADH2 release __ and __ that carry chemical energy . protons (H+) and electrons
The Krebs cycle ends with a transfer of H+ to oxygen and the formation of ? water
During several steps in the cytochrome path, enough energy is released to support synthesis of __ from ADP. ATP
Do cytochromes directly produce ATP? No
__ are membrane-bound (i.e. inner mitochondrial membrane) hemeproteins containing heme groups. Cytochromes
How do cytochromes help produce ATP? They create the conditions needed to ATP to form.
During step 1 of the electron transport chain, a coenzyme strips a pair of __ atoms from a substrate molecule in the Krebs Cycle and glycolysis. H+
What are the 2 possible substrates used in step 1 of the electron transport chain? FADH2 or NADH
During step 2 of the electron transport chain, FADH2 and NADH deliver H+ atoms to coenzymes embedded the inner __ membrane. mitochondrial
During step 3 of the electron transport chain, electrons are passed along the chain and lose __ in a series of small steps. energy
Remember that H+ atom = what? 1 proton and 1 electron
During step 4 of the electron transport chain, an oxygen atom excepts __. electrons
During step 4 of the electron transport chain, what is created? Oxygen ion: O2-
An O2- oxygen ion has a strong affinity for __ which can combine with it to form water. H+
The synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources is called ? gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogenesis can create glucose molecules from what 3 things? 1. other carbs 2. glycerol 3. some amino acids
Gluconeogenesis (abbreviated GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of __ from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glucogenic amino acids, and odd-chain fatty acids glucose
Gluconeogenesis starts with ? pyruvic acid
Why can gluconeogenesis start with acetyl coenzyme A? Decarboxylation is irreversible
__ acids and most __ acids can't be converted to glucose. fatty acids and most amino acids
Glucose made by gluconeogenesis cna make other simple __ and complex __. simple sugars and complex carbohydrates
The process of glycogen formation is called ? glycogenesis
Glycogenesis makes it possible to store __ molecules in the liver. glucose
Glycogenesis makes it possible to store glucose in the skeletal muscles as __. glycogen
Created by: IsaacJ