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Patho. Ch. 1

Pathophysiologic Concepts

The study of specific characteristics and functions of a living organism and its parts. Physiology
Of the Greek origin meaning suffering or disease. Patho
The study of the disorder or breakdown of the human body's function. Pathophysiology
Of the Greek origin meaning a dynamic steady state, representing the net effect of all turnover reactions. Maintenance of this state is an essential feature of the normal body. Homeostasis
Parameters such as temperature, cardiac output, blood pressure, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, acid-base balance, fluid volume, and electrolyte composition are closely regulated to continue in what state? Homeostasis
Causes the controller to respond in a manner that opposes devitation from normal. Negative Feedback
Primary homeostatic sensors Sensory Neurons and Endocrine Glands
What is the response carried out by? Effectors (Muscles and Glands)
An initial disturbance in a system that sets off a chain of events that does not favor stability and often abruptly displaces a system away from its steady-state operating point. Positive Feedback
The sum of deviations form normal. Disease
Dynamic rather than static. Disease
Age, gender, genetic and ethnic background, geographic area, and time of day may influence what? Physiological Parameters
Normal blood range for adult women? 12 to 16 g/100 ml
Normal blood range for adult men? 13 to 18 g/100 ml
Normal serum creatinine level for women? 0.4 to 1.3 mg/dl
Normal serum creatinine level for men? 0.6 to 1.5 mg/dl
RBC count increases when a person moves to a high altitude. This increase is a normal adaptive response to the decreased availability of oxygen at a high altitude known as? Acclimatization
Factors that vary according to time of day. Circadian Rhythm or Diurnal Variation
The cause. Etiologic Process
Mechanisms of its development including the structural and biochemical alterations induced in the cells and organs of the body. Pathogenesis
The functional consequences of these changes. Clinical Manifestations
The study of the causes or reasons for phenomena. Etiology
Age, health, and general nutritional status of the person are considered? Etiologic Factors
When the cause is unknown. Idiopathic
If the cause is due to an unintended or unwanted medical treatment. Iatrogenic
Classification of Diseases Inherited, Congenital, Metabolic, Degenerative, Neoplastic, Immunologic, Infectious, Physical Agent-Induced, Nutritional Deficiency, Iatrogenic, Phychogenic, Idiopathic.
Inherited Diseases Altered or mutated genes can cause abnormal proteins to be made. These abnormal proteins do not perform their intended function, thus resulting in the absence of essential function.
Congenital Diseases Prenatal influences are responsible for most neonatal deaths. The brain and other organs can be deformed by the mother's use of certain drugs during the pregnancy.
Metabolic Diseases Arise from abnormalities in the chemistry of the body. More than 100 deficiencies of vital enzymes have genetic bases.
Degenerative Diseases The breakdown of tissues. Heartattacks and strokes are two examples of this type of disease and are responsible for more than half of all deaths in the U.S.
Neoplastic Diseases Specifically recognized for tumors, especially malignant. Cancer is an example.
Immunologic Diseases One of the most extensively investigated systems today. This body system responsible for function and provides protection against inflammation, infection, and cancer.
Infectious Diseases This type of disease is usually caused by pathogens, or disease-causing organisms. Parasites are often the trigger.
Physical Agent-Induced Diseases Agents such as toxic or destructive chemicals, extreme heat or cold, mechanical in jury, an dradiation can affect the body. Violent injury or death from mechanical, chemical, or physical agents are common among young children.
Nutritional Deficiency Diseases More than 300 million preschool-aged children are malnourished and vulnerable to infectious disease. Tuberculosis and malnutrition are the most common causes of death in developing countries.
Iatrogenic Diseases Caused by physician or health care professional. Often times drugs administered are to blame, but ultimately traces back to the physician.
Psychogenic Diseases Illnesses that appear to originate from emotional or mental causes rather than disease-causing organisms or other strictly physiologic entities.
Idiopathic Diseases "Of undetermined cause."
Factors affecting Pathogenesis Time, quantity, location, morphologic changes
Factors affecting patterns of disease Age, ethnic group, gender, socioeconomic factors and lifestyle considerations,and geographic location
Levels of prevention Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary
Prevention of disease by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible individuals. Primary Prevention
The early detection, screening, and management of the disease. Applicable in early disease. Secondary Prevention
Includes rehabilitative and supportive care and attempts to alleviate disability and restore effective functioning. Appropriate in the stage of advanced disease or disability. Tertiary Prevention
Created by: shanhaup



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