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Chemistry Review-SR

Chemistry Review 111-200

What is the final breakdown of purine in animals? Allantoin
What is the final breakdown of purine in humans? Uric Acid
Monosodium urate precipitates in acid urine to what? uric acid crystals
Ammonia is used by the liver cells in the production of what? Urea
Carbohydrates-What sugar units make up monosaccharide group? glucose, galactose and fructose
Carbohydrates-What sugar units make up disaccharide group? Maltose, lactose and sucrose
Carbohydrates-What sugar units make up the polysaccharide group? starch-storage form of sugar in plants glycogen-storage form of sugar in humans
The disaccharide, maltose is made up of what sugar units? Maltose= glucose + glucose
The disaccharide lactose is made up of what sugar units? Lactose= glucose + galactose
The disaccharide sucrose is made up of what sugar units? Sucrose= glucose + fructose
What is glycogen synthesis: glucose converted to glycogen called? glycogenesis
What is the metabolism of glucose to lactic acid for energy? glycolysis
What is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrates called? gluconeogenesis
What is the lysis of glycogen to glucose for use as energy? glycogenolysis
What hormone is produced by beta cells of the pancrease? Insulin-hyperglycemic agent
What hormone is produced by alpha cells of the pancrease? glucagon-hyperglycemic agent
What hormone is produced by adrenal medulla? epinephrine-fight or flight
What hormone is produced by the adrenal cortex? cortisol-glucocorticoid
What hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary? growth hormone
What hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary? adrenocorticotropic hormone
What hormone is produced by the thyroid gland? thyroxine
What hormone is produced by the D clls of the pancreas somatostatin
Classical method for testing blood glucose? O-toluidine
Enzyme test most specific to measure glucose: most common method, measures absorbance which is proportional to the amounnt of glucose? Glucose oxidase
Most sensitive method for measuring glucose(fewer interferences)? Hexokinase
Highly sensitive glucose test, color development directly proportional to glucose concentration developed for primarily for automation? neocuproine(alkaline cupric ion reduction
What are the three ketone bodies? acetone, acetoacetic acid(diacetic acid), beta-hydroxybutyric acid- use nitroprusside to detectacetoacetic acid(DIACETIC ACID)
Test used to determine the cause of hypoglycemia due to insulin administration and endogenous inslulin production? C-peptide
Hemoglobin synthesis occurs in ? bone marrow
Hemoglobin is converted to? bilirubin
Iron chelates with prophyrins to form? heme
Inorganic cofactors are? activators
Organic cofactors are? coenzyme
Aspartate transaminase(AST) formerly SGOT Tissue sources-heart, liver, skeletal muscle Clinical-acute myocardial infarction, hepatocellular disorders(viral hepatitis, cirrhosis),Muscular dystrophyRANGE 5-30 IU/L
Alanine transaminase(ALT) formerly SGPT tissue-liver Clinical-hepatic disorders-viral hepatitis, cirrhosis RANGE-6-37 IU/L
Alkaline phosphatase An alkaline pH of 10.2 is required also the activator magnesium.tissue-liver, bone, placenta, intestinehepatobilary disorders,bone disorders ie (Paget disease, rickets)Pregnancy
Acid Phosphatase An acid pH of 5.0 is required replaced by PSA because more sensitve indicator of prostate cancer.Tissue-prostate, rbcclinical-prostatic carcinoma and forensic investigation of rapeRANGE- 0.3-11.7 IU/L
Gamma-glutamyl tranferase(GGT) tissue-liver, bile duct clinical-elevated in all forms of live disease. More sensitive tha ALP for obstuctive jaundice, cholangitis,cholecystitis. Increased in alcoholic cirhosis. NOT ELEVATED IN BONE AS ALP, NOT ELEVATED IN MUSCLE OR HEMOLYTIC DISORDERS
Amylase Amylase catalyzes the beakdown of starch into monosaccharides.Tissue-pancreas, salivary glands Clinical-acute pancreatitis, mumps,macromylasemia(amy. combines with Ig to form a complex that is too large to be filtered accross the glomerulus.
Lipase tissue-pancreaseclinical-acute pancreatitisenzymatic method-turbidimetric assayCLASSICAL METHOD-CHERRY AND CRANDALL METHOD,USES OLIVE OIL AS SUBSTRATE.Range- 0-1.0 IU/L
Aldolase Catalyst in one of the reations in the glycolic breakdown of glucose to lactic acid.ALL BODY CELLS CONTAIN ENZYME. RBC contain 150X as high as serum level.DON'T USE HEMOLYZED SAMPLE.Clinical-muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction
Calcium(Ca++) Calicium and phosphorous closely related.Regulation of Ca++ is done by parathyroid hormone-increase ca++ by mobilizing calcium form bone.Methodologies-Most common-Complexometric dye bindingClassical method-Clark CollipRange 8.6-10.0 mg/dL
Phosphorous(P04) Phosphorous in body bone 80%,DNn/RNA, ATP/ADP Regulation-Parathyroid hormone decrease phos.Method-colormetricRange- 2.7-4.5 mg/dL
Magnesium magnesium is present in the blood in the following ways:bound to albumin, fee or ionized(active form)Mg is essential co-factorRegulation-magniesium is controlled by the kidney. Renal threshold 1.5-2.1 mg/dLDecrease-poor diet, starvation, chronic alcoholis
Iron Incorportated into-Hemoglobin 70-75% of total iron is in active form as hemoglobin(Fe++),myoglobin, enzymes, proteinsIron absorption takes lace in the small intestine.Iron is stored as ferritin(bloodstream-Fe+++)hemosiderin(tissue)Transported by transferr
Iron Function oxygen transport Oxyhemoglobin contains Fe++Methemoglobin contains Fe+++decreased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin is caused by increased 2,3 DPG, resulting in increased from hemoglobin
Iron methods serum iron-shows diurnal variation.spectrophotometric determination using ferrozine
TIBC TIBC refers to the amount of iron that could be bound by saturating
Transferrin measured by a tubidimetric reation used in the evaluation of ion statusused as an indicator of nutritional statusan acute phase protein(negative acute phase reactant)transferrin is decreased in inflammation
Ferritin most commonly measured by ELISA a marker for iron stores decreases before serum iron decreases
Copper Copper is bound to albumin,transcuprein, ceruloplasmin(alpha2 globulin)Most copper is bound to this protein ceruloplasmin.Function-an inorganic cofactor, essential trace element, needed for melanin pigmentagtion Decrease-malnutrition, malabsorption syndro
Lactate Pyruvate is end product of glycolysis->pyruvate converts to lactacte in o2 absence->lactate is an ealy indicator of hypoxia->lactate levels are regulated by the liver-lactate is converted to glucoseClinical-levels indicate the severity of critacally ill p
Sodium(Na) Range 136-145 mmol/L ISE-Ion selective electrode The most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid. Determines the osmolaity of plasma.85% reabsorbed by kidney tubules-primarily affected by aldosterone Regulation-AldosteroneClinical-decrease-diabetic acidosis, renal tubular disease,diarrhea,
Potassium(K) Method-ISE Serum-3.4-5.0 mmol/L Urine-25-125 mmol/L Potassium is major intracellular cation.Fuction-regulation of neuromuscular excitability, contraction of the heart, intracellular fluid volume, hydrogen ion concentration.Regulation-proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb K Clinical-GI loss, renal excretion,
Cloride(Cl) serum=98-107 mmol/L urine=110-250 mmol/L Chloride is the major extracellular anion. Function-maintaining osmolality, blood volume, electric neutrality Regulation-Chloride shift Methodology-ISE,amperometric-coulometric titration,mercurimetric titration,colorimetry
Carbon dioxide Range 22-29 mmol/L total cabon dioxide is comprised of bicarbonate ion, carbonic acid, dissolved CO2 Regulation-by Lungs Bicarbonate is regulagted by the kidneys.Method-ISE-pH eledctrode is used to measure CO2, colorimetric method measures the color intensity, enzymatic.
Beer's Law-Spectrophotometry Beer's Law states concentration of a substance is directly proportional to the amount of light absorbed by a solution.Visible light is between 400-700 nm
Flame photometry Flame photometry is used to measure light emitted by excited atoms. Excited atoms return to the ground state by emitting light energy. Primary use Na+, K+, and Li++
Fluorometry Energy emission that occurs when certain compounds absorbing electromagnetic radiation become excited and return to energy levels slightly lowerthan their original energy levels.
Chemiluminescence Light produced as a result of a chemical reaction. Light emitted by emission of photons.
Turbidimetry A measure of the amount of light blocked by suspention of paritcles.
Nephelometry A measure of the amount of light scattered b y the particles in solution.
Electrochemistry Potentiometry, Amperometry, Coulometry, Electrodes(ISE, pH electrodes,electrode membranes, gas-sensing electrodes, enzyme electrodes)
Serum electrophoresis at pH 8.6 ALL proteins have a net negative charge. Negative charged ions are called ANIONS. Anions->anode(pos. charged electrode).The rate of migration is dependent on: net charge of the particle(directly proportional),size of the particle(indirect prop.)
Chromatography refers to a group of techniques used to separate complex mixtures on the basis of different physical properties between the stationary phase and the mobile phase.
Scintillation counter was used to measure radioactivity, used to measure gamma rays.
Osmometry meaures the concentration of dissolved particles in a solution. Any substance dissolved in a solvent will affect the colligative properties.
Growth hormone(GH) Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Promotes growth in soft tissue, muscle, cartilage, and bone. Stimulates synthesis and fat and glucose metabolism.
Prolactin(PRL) Polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Function initiates and maintains lactation in women, no known function in males.
Antidiuretic hormone(ADH) Secreted by the hypothalamus-increases water absorption.
Oxytocin Secreted by the hypothalamus. Stimulates uterine contractions(induce labor)
Thyroid Hormones thyroine=T4triiodothyronine=T3thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH)hypothalamus stiulates anterior pituitary to produce(TSH), & acts on thyroid gland.T3&T4circulate primarily as bound-to-serum proteins. Protein bound forms are inactive.
Grave's Disease autoimmune disorder-hyperthyroidism.sysptoms=nervous, seating, heat intolerance, moist warm skin, tremor, angina
Hashimotos Disease auto immune disorder that leads to destruction of the thyroid-hypothyroidism.Symptoms-lethaqrgy, weakness, cold intolerance, weight gain, constipation
Calcitonin Secreated by thyroid, inhibits bone resorption,decrease bone turnover. May be used to treat Paget disease, osteoporosis, and hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Parathyroid hormone(PTH) Secreted by parathyroid. Regulation of calcium concentration.Stimulates renal production of vit. D.
Aldosterone A mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex. Function-maintains electrolyte balance and extracellular fluid volume, increase K++ excretionConn syndrome(hyperaldosteronism)
Cortisol Produced by the adrenal cortex after stimulation by ACTH from pituitary. Highest level 8am Lowest level 4PM. Function increaes glucose levels, suppresses inflammatory response, maintain BP. Hypercortisolism(Cushings syndrome)Hypocortisolism(Addison diseas
Catecholamines Produced by the adrenal medulla.VMA/HVA test
Created by: sabrinaramirez