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Blood Banking Study1

Studying for 2nd test in Blood Banking, DelTech Owens campus MLT program.

QuestionAnswer
Molecules that bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors are called ? antigens
Nonself antigens are called ? allogenic antigens
Self antigens are called ? autologous antigens
Partial antigens that require a carrier molecule to trigger an immune response are called ? haptens
Epitopes are antigenic ? determinants
The part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells, is called an ? epitope
The part of an antibody that recognizes the epitope is called a ? paratope
Antigens have different epitopes which can trigger different types of ? antibodies
B Cells (or B lymphocytes) are involved in what kinds of reactions? humoral
Most blood transfusion reactions are humoral and involve ? B lymphocytes
B cells the make the majority of antibodies in the body are called ? plasma cells
B cells the react quickly to the body's 2nd exposure to an antigen are called ? memory B cells
B cells transform into ? plasma cells
When a B lymphocyte recognizes an antigen, it presents the antigen to ? T lymphocytes
Once a B cell has presented an antigen to a T cell, the T cell causes the B cells to produce more what? plasma cells
Memory B cells are are generated after an antigen presenting cell has presented the antigen to a T cell. The memory cells can then respond to the next exposure without __ from T cells. activation
Antigens that produce an immune response are called ? immunogens
Which kind of molecules make the best immunogens? proteins
Which kind of molecules make the best immunogens AFTER proteins? complex carbohydrates
The greater the difference between an antigen and particles recognized to be part of the host, the greater the chance of triggering an __ __. immune response
Size is also a factor of immunogenicity. Molecules with a molecular weight of greater than __ D are better immunogens. 10,000
The number red cells introduced into the body and the number of antigens they carry contribute to the likelihood of an ? immune response
Injections in what 2 areas are more likely to trigger an immune response? intramuscular and intravenous
Antibodies are __ made of 4 polypeptide chains joined by disulfide bonds. glycoproteins
How many heavy chains do antibodies have? 2
How many light chains to antibodies have? 2 : they can be 2 kappa or 2 lambda chains
The heavy chains are also known as the __ region. constant
What are the 5 classes of antibody? IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
Which part of the antibody determines its class? Constant region or heavy chain.
The region that binds the antibody to an antigen is known as the __ region. variable
Which classes of antibody are the most important in immunohematology? IgG and IgM
The response triggered by the body's first exposure to an antigen is called the __ response. primary
How long does the primary response take? 5 to 10 days
Which kind of antibody is produced first upon encountering a new antibody? IgM
Are less or more antibodies produced during the first exposure, or primary response? Less
How long does the body take to react to the first exposure to an antigen? 5 to 10 days (it's the primary response)
After IgM antibodies have been produced during the first exposure, which class are produced next? IgG
When is the secondary response triggered to an antigen? Upon the second or subsequent exposures to the antigen
How long does the secondary response to an antigen take? 1 - 3 days
Which kind of antibody dominates the secondary response? IgG, with lesser amounts of IgM
Antibody levels are higher or lower during the secondary response when compared to the primary response? higher
What is formed when an antigen and an antibody combine? immune complex
What 3 things influence the strength of the bond of the immune complex particles? 1. Size 2. shape 3. charge (of the antigen)
The strength of the bond between antigen and antibody in an immune complex is called ? avidity
What kind of forces hold an immune complex together? noncovalent
An attraction between 2 molecules on the basis or opposite charge is referred to as __ bonding, or __ forces. ionic binding or electrostatic forces
When 2 negatively charged groups are attracted to H+ atoms, this is called ? hydrogen bonding
Weak bonds formed due to the exclusion of water from the antigen-antibody complex are known as ? hydrophobic bonding
An attractive force between a negatively charged electron cloud of one atom and the positively charged protons of the nucleus of another atom are known as ? van der Waals forces.
When a positively charged region of a molecule is attracted to a negatively charged region of another molecule, this is known as ? ionic bonding or electrostatic forces
Created by: IsaacJ