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Spinal Column Structure? 7 Cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacrum, 3-5 infused coccyx
3 Normal Curves of spine Thoracic spine curves anteriorly Cervical & Lumbar curves posteriorly Spinal curves enable to absorb blows & shocks
Lordosis, Kyphosis, Lumbar Kyphosis, Scoliosis increase posterior concaviry ot lumbar and cervical curves increase anterior concavity of thoracic curve reduction of normal lordotic curve/flat back lateral curvature
Functional unit of spine? 2 adjacent vertebrae and the disk that separates them
Articulation of vertebral bodies? -cartiledge joint -intervertebral discs=fibrocartiledge -permits compressin in any direction & torsion -shock absorber -weak annulus fibrosus with age/injury
Inervertebral disk/herniated nucelus protruding through annulus resulting from substanial weakening combined with compression -protrusion=pressure on spinal nerve root
Joint vertabrae movement (except atlantoaxial) -minimal movement -comulative effect from lots verts to move lots -gliding type joints due to limited gliding -gliding between superior and inferior articular processes of facet joints
Articulation of Vertebral arches? Facets are? -Facets or nonaxial -enclosed in a capsule, permit gliding -motion determined by the direct that the facets face
Articulation of cervical veterbral arches? Where is free rotation modederate? -slant 45 degrees -freely move in flexion/extenion/lateral flexion -rotation is moderate from C2 down
Articulation of thoracic veterbral arches -facets face backward, slightly upward and lateral -permit rotation freely -moderal flexion and extenion and lateral flexion
Articulation of lumbar veterbral arches -facets face inward & slightly backward -locked against rotation -permits flexion and exteion and lateral flexion
Ribs? 12 pairs-7 true attached to sternum, 5 fals pairs -3 attack indirectly to sternum, 2 pairs are free
Atlanto-occipital Articulation? -Condyles of occipital bone articulate with the aritular fossa of hte atlas -the two bones act like a hinge joint -permit flexion and exteion & slight lateral flexion
Atlantoaxial Articulation? -Pivot Joint -solve fuction is rotation/most mobile vertabrae pair -dens project upward from axis and held in place by transverse ligament
Most Movement? Movement of Head? Trunk movements? -movement occurs in cervical & lumbar, moderate thoracic -head: between cranium and 1st cervical and with other cervical vertabrae "cervical moments" -lumbar motion describes combined thoracic and lumbar since they move together
Cervical region movement degrees? Flexes & extends and lateral flexes 45 rotates 60
Lumbar spine movement degrees? Flexes approximated 80, extends 20-30, lateral 35, rotational 45
Regional spinal movement classifications of : atlantooccipital, atlantoaxial, cervical joints -flexion/extension/hyperextension/lat flex -rotation -flex/ex/lat flex/moderate rot
Regional spinal movement of thoracic and lumbar -mod flex/slight ex/mod lat flax/rot -flex/ex/lat flex/little rot
Influences of stability and mobility? Thick disks=more motion pressure/tension anteroposterior curves-degree of movement -thickness & strength-motions permiteted influence
Abdominable wall attachments? aponeurosis fascia aroudn rectus abdominus (external/interal) oblique &transversus abdominis
Muscles that move the head? Splenius & sternocleidomastoid move head lots of power
Cervical Flexion? Cervical Extension? Flexion: sternocleiodomastoid Extension: Erector Spinae & Splenius
Cervical lateral flexion & rotation? Lateral Flexion & rotation(be side specific): Sternocleidomastoid, splenius, erector spinae
Lumbar Flexion and Extension? Flexion: Rectus abdominis, external/interal oblique abdominable Extension: Erector spinae, quadratus laborum
Lumbar Lat Flex and Rot? Lat Flexion: Erector spinae, external/internal oblique abdominable, Rectus Abdominus & quatratus laborum Rotational: Erector spinae, internal/external oblique obdominable
Good posture? weight segments balance vertically, rotation gravity force is minimal (always present)
Prolonged postural strain consequences? -ligaments can permanently stretch -cartilage can be damaged due to abnormal friction -arthritis
Erect standing: leg and hip? Posteriior calf muscles more active then anterior, very little hip activity. -illopsoas constantly active, prevents hyperextention of hip
Posture screening? -Anterior to lateral malleolus & sacroilliac -midline of knee joint center -slightly posterior to hip
Scapula and clavicle? Move as a unit
Shoulder girdle joint motion? scapula moves on rib cage at sternoclavicular joint, a little on acromioclavicular joint
SC *sternocalv* range of motion? 15 protract, 15 retract, 45 elevate, 5 depress
scapulothoracic joint? kind of joint? -not a true synovial joint -no regular synovial features -depends on SC and AC -no ligament support -support dynamicalyl through muscles
Movements of shoulder girdle Abduction(protraction), adduction(retraction), downward/upward rotation, depress/elevate
Shoulder girdle muscles stabilize? -scapula so shoulder joint has stable base, moves shoulder girdle, enhance upper extremity movement when extreme ROM occurs
When does shoulder girdlle-scapular lateral or medial tilt occur? lateral-abduction, medial, extreme adduction
Open and closed chain of shoulder girdle? Segment moved? Open chain-distal(arm not fixed)=shoulder girdle Closed chain-proximal-fixed to something=trunk
5 shoulder girdle muscles. attach to humerus? cause shoulder joint actions? Trapezius (3 parts), rhomboid, levator scapula, serratus anterior and pec minor. Do not attach to humerus and do not cause shoulder joint actions
Scapula/Shoulder girdle abduction? Pec Minor & Serratus Anterior
Scapula/Shoulder girdle adduction? Middle & lower trap, rhomboid
Scapula/Shoulder girdle Lateral & Upward rotation? Upper, middle & lower trap. Serratus anterior
Scapula/Shoulder girdle downward & medial movement? Pec minor & rhomboid
Scapula/Shoulder girdle elevation? Levator scapula, middle & upper trap, rhomboid
Scapula/Shoulder girdle depression lower trap and pec minor
glenohumeral joint/shoulder joint? What kind is it? #arthridol? how many planes? multiaxial ball and socket joint, enarthridol, moves in all 3 planes, most moveable joint
Size of gleniod fossa? Glenoid labrum does? Shallow and smaller then humeral head. Glenoid labrum slightly enhances stability
Ligaments are lax until? Lack of static stability enhances dynamic stability from? wide range of motion is involved. rotator cuff muscles
Shoulder joint movement degrees? 90-95 abduction, 0-75 degrees anterior to trunk 40-60 extension, 90-100 flexion,70-90 rotation,45 horizontal adduct, 135 hori abduc
Why shoulder joint frequently injured? Shallowness of glenoid fossa, laxity of ligmant structures, lack of strength/endurance of muscles
Should Joint pairing to shoulder girdle Abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, interal rotation, external rotation, horizontal abduction, horrizontal adduction Upward Rot/elevation, downward rot/depression, elation/upward rot, depression/downward rot, abduction, adduction, adduction, abduction
Open and closed chain of shoulder joint Open chain-distal:Upper arm Closed chain-proximal: shoulder girdle
Shoulder joint flexion Flexion: Ant. Deltoid, upper pec major and coracobrachilais
Shoulder Joint extension teres major, lat dorsi, lower pec major, poster deltoid, Assist: subscapularis,infraspinatus, teres minor
SHoulder joint abduction Anterior, posterior and medial deltoid, Upper pec major 90 degrees and above, suprascapularis
Rotator cuff muscles? SITS: Supraspinatus, infraspintaus, teres minor, subscapularis
Shoulder joint adduction? -lattisimus dorsi, teres major, lower pec major, upper pec major 90 and below, Assistors: corochobrachialis, subscapularis
Shoulder joint internal rotation? -Latt dorsi, teres major, pec major (upper and lower) Assistor: delt anterior, subscapularis
Shoulder Joint External rotation? -infraspinatus, teres minor (tubercle), Assistor: posterior deltoid
Shoulder joint horizontal abduction? Posterior deltoid, infrasppinatus, teres minor, Assistor: latt dorsi
Shoulder joint horizontal adduction? Anterior deltoid,pec major (upp and lower), coracobrachialis
Shoulder joint Diagnoal abduction? Post delt, infraspinatus, teres minor, triceps brachii long head
Shoulder joint diangnal adduction? ant delt, coracobrachilais, biceps brachii short head, upper and lower pec major
Where ulna is larger? where radius is larger? Ulna is larger proximaly, radius larger distaly
Elbow joint type? movement allows? Interrelated joints? Ginglymus/hinge type joint, only flexion/extension, humeroulnar and radiohumeral joints
Elbow joint stability? Elbow flexes 20 degrees or more its bony stability is unlocked allowing for more side-to-side laxity -stability in flexion is more dependant on the lateral and medial legiamanets
Ulnar collateral ligament? Providing medial support to prevent elbow from abducting when in physical activity
Radial collateral ligament? Provides lateral stability and is rarely injured Annular ligament proves a slight effect around radial head for stability
Radioulnar joint type? Where radial and distal radius rotate? Pivot-joint type, radial head rotates around proximal unla, distal radius rotatres around distal ulna, annular ligament maintains radial head in its joint
Radioulnar joint supinate/pronate? 80-90 supinate, 70-80 pronate
Elbow flexors? Biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, some from pronator teres
Elbow extensors? Triceps brachii, anconeus some assistance (psuh up)
Radioulnar pronators pronator teres, pronator quadratus, brachioradialis
Radioulnar supinator biceps brachii, supinar muscle, brachioradialis, tightening a screw
Extension and Supination Arm triceps brachii, anconeus, supinator
Flexion and Pronation Arm Biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradailis, pronator teres, pronator quadratus
Open and closed chain hands Open chain(bicep curl)-distal: forearm Closed: pullup/pushup-proximan: upper arm
Posterior Logitudinal Ligament of Spinal column limits? Anterior? Flexion of trunk, extension of trunk
What type of joint occurs between the superior and inferior articulating facets of adjacent vertebrae non-axial gliding
The internal oblique generates ________________, and the external oblique generates _________________. rotation Same side, rotation opposite side
In order to look over your shoulder behind you, rotation in the transverse plane must occur in the _____________ regions. cervical and thoracic
The spinous processes of the thoracic vertabrae protrude _______________, which limits thoracic _____________. : downward/backward, extension
In anatomical position, where is the center of gravity located relative to the spine? Anterior
An action common to the teres minor and infraspinatus is? External Rotation
Which of the following is a factor that contributes to stability of the shoulder joint? tight configuration of the ligaments
Where does most of the motion of the elbow joint occur? humeralulnar joint
Supination and pronation of the radioulnar joint motion predominately occurs by the _____________ with respect to the _______________. radius, ulnar
Raising the humerus high out to the side (abduction of the shoulder joint) to ask a question involves which motion of the scapula? Elevation
Which of the following are actions of the shoulder girdle? upward rotation, abduction, elevation
Which of the following actions is performed by the levator scapulae? elevation
An action common to lattisimus dorsi, teres major, and lower pectoralis major is ___________________. extension
Which of the following is not a function of the latissimus dorsi? external rotate
The actions of the lower portion of the trapezius include all of the following except: elevation
Which of the following is an action of the middle fibers of the deltoid? abduction
What Latt dorsi do? Extension, Adduction, horizontal abduction, internal rotation
What deltoid Ant, Middle, Post fibers do? Anterior: Flexes, abducts,horizontal adduction, & internal rotation Middle: abduction Post: extension, horizontal abduction,external rotation, abduction
Motions of corochobrachialis? Flexion, adduction, horizontal adduction
Motions of subscapularis? internal rotation, adduction, extension
Motions of supraspinatus? abduction
Motions of infraspinatus? (back) -extension, external rotation, horizontal abduction
Motions of teres major? Extension, adduction, internal rotation
Motions of teres minor? external rotation, horizontal abduction, extension
Created by: soysauce147



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