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immunohematology

final for CLLS- 316

QuestionAnswer
This portion of the antibody contains the specific binding site for the antigen Fab
Characteristics of a good immunogen (antigen) structural complexity, large molecular weight, the presence of numerous epitopes
An undesirable consequence of immunity is an autoimmune disorder
The first line of defense against infection is unbroken skin
a child who contracts a contagious disease from an older sibling could develop _____immunity against the disease natural active
artificial passive immunity is achieved by infusion/injection of pre-formed antibody
which immunoglobulin (Ig) class is produced in the highest concentration is a secondary response IgG
Humoral innate immunity is the primary defense against extracellular bacteria
Composition of antigens protein, polysaccharides, lipids
What are antibodies? Glycoproteins, found in body fluids, might be on surface of B cells or secreted by plasma cells, production decreases as we age
Antibody structure 2 light & 2 heavy chains held together by disulfide bridges
Fab section of immunoglobulin molecule that react with the antigen. Determine specificity of the Ig.
Fc portion site that binds to host tissues
5 classes of antibodies IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
IgG most abundant 85%, secondary resp, cross placenta, activates the classical complement pathway, small monomer molecule, long term immunity
IgM about 10% in serum, first antibody on site, primary & secondary resp., activates classical complement pathway, LG pentameter molecule
IgA hangs around IgM & IgG, helps antigen clearance and immune regulation, inhibits IgG in complement activation, activates alternative pathway
IgE allergic reactions, type 1 hypersensitivity reaction
IgD short 1/2 life 2-3 days, found on surface of cell membrane of B lymphs
Natural immunity innate immunity & Non-adaptive/non-specific
Innate immunity ability to resist infection by means normally present in body
non-adaptive/non-specific same for all pathogens, no specificity, no prior exp., resp. does not change
role of innate immunity recognition, phagocytosis, and inflammation
Adaptive immunity specific or acquired immunity, inv. production of antibodies by B lymphs and plasma cells, increased response upon repeated exposure
What type of immunity has memory adaptive immunity
Cellular adaptive immunity targets what cells infected cells, tumor cells, and non self cells
What are the basic steps of the Immune system inflammation, phagocytosis, antibody response, effector T-lymphocytes, removal of dying cells
Primary response response that occurs after a harmful antigen has been encountered for the first time
secondary response much quicker & more effective response that occurs after previous exposure
Igm response 4 stages lag phase, log phase, plateau phase, decline phase
cellular immunity cell mediated, direct cell to cell contact or soluble products secreted by cells, defense against viral and fungal infect.
T-helper cells key messengers, play major role in resp.
humoral immunity antibody mediated, associated with B cells, antibodies in serum
Primary defense against bacterial infections humoral immunity
Paul Ehrlich lock & key concept
Active immunity developed by natural exposure to antigen
artificially acquired active immunity intentional exposure to an antigen (vaccination)
Passive immunity administration of preformed antibodies, produced by recipients cells
Aims of vaccination Induce memory in T and/or B lymphs through infection of a non virulent antigen prep.
vaccination produces active immunity, resp. is similar to natural infection, memory is long lived
Cells of the innate immune system are Granulocytes and mononuclear cells
apoptosis programmed cell death
1st cells to site of infection neutrophils
Natural killer cells kills cells infected with certain viruses and cancer cells, part of innate immunity
Neutrophils phagocytosis & killing of microorganisms
Eosinophils killing of antibody-coated parasites through release of granule contents
basophils unknown
monocyte circulating precursor cell to macrophage
Macrophage phagocytosis & killing of microorganisms. Activation of T cell & initiation of immune resp.
Dendritic cell activation of T cells and initiation of adaptive immune responses
mast cell expulsion of parasites from body through release of granules containing histamine & other active agents
Phagocytosis cells that eat cells, most important function of innate defense system
Opsonins serum factors in the blood were formed in response to exposure to foreign substances
Stages of Phagocytosis chemotaxis, adherence, engulfment, phagosome formation & fusion, phagolysosome formation, digestion & destruction
Inflammation The body's response to injury or invasion by a pathogen
What happens during inflammation blood supply to infected area, inc capillary permeability, migration of WBC from capillaries to surrounding tissue, migration of macrophages to injured area
Inflammatory response rubor, calor, edema, dolor
A phagolysosome is formed when cytoplasmic granules fuse with the phagosome
MHC is a gene region located on chromosome 6, found on all nucleated cells
lymphocytes of adaptive immunity function cooperatively in cell-mediated or humoral immunity
lymphoid cells consist of B and T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes found primarily in bone marrow, spleen, & lymph nodes
T lymphocytes found primarily in thymus, blood, lymph nodes
The most numerous lymphs in circulation T-Lymphocytes
CD4 cells subset of T lymphs are helper-induced T cells
CD8 cells subset are the suppressor-cytotoxic T cells
Nk and K cells effector lymphocytes, lack conventional antigen receptors of T & B cells
Plasma cells found in bone marrow, end stage of B cell differentiation
Who's function is the synthesis & excretion of immunoglobulins Plasma cells
Who's main function is to bring antigen to cell surface for recognition by T cells MHC
The classical complement pathway is activated by antigen-antibody complexes
The complement system is composed of more than 1 pathway and is a series of plasma proteins
In the classical pathway C3 convertase is C4b2a
in the alternative pathway, C5 convertase is C3Bb3b
MAC made up of C5-C9
activation unit made up of C2, C3, C4
What are the 3 complement pathways Classical pathway, Alternative complement pathway, Lectin complement pathway
Complement can lyse cells w/o the presence of antibody
Complement cascade activation of complement
Alternative pathway can be activated by bacterial cells
Mannos binding lectin pathway activated by terminal sugars on bacterial cells
c-activation alteration of C proteins such they interact with the next component
C-fixation utilization of C by Ag-Ab complexes, the attachment
C-inactivation denaturation of early c-component
Convertase/esterase altered C-protein
Proteolytic enzyme various enzymes that digest protein
Opsonin substance in blood serum acting on bacteria & foreign cells
Classical pathway involves 9 proteins: C1-C9, triggered by antigen-antibody combination
Three main stages of Classical pathway activation Recognition unit(C1), Activation unit(C4,C2,C3),MAC(C5-C9)
Created by: pamela18