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CLLS-302

Clls-302 final exam

QuestionAnswer
Glassware calibrated to deliver the amount of liquid that is marked on the instrument is labeled what TD
A substance that is dissolved in a liquid is a solute
A substance that dissolves a substance is a solvent
The combination of a solute and a solvent is a solution
Glassware is calibrated at 20 degrees C
Chemical bond in which 2 or more atoms share their valence electrons is a covalent bond
A chemical bond in which 1 or more valence electrons is completely transferred from 1 atom to another Ionic
What is the term for a solution that contains relatively little solute dilute
What is the term for a solution that contains a large amount of dissolved solute concentrated
Beer's Law (A unknown/A standard) X C standard
The purpose of a light filter in the spectrophotometer is Isolate individual wavelengths of light
Icteric excessive amount of bilirubin
Lipemic excessive amount of fats
Hemolyzed excessive amount of blood
Carbohydrates are characterized by what properties # of sugar units, location of the CO functional group, and size of the base carbon chain
Carbohydrate with chainc of 2-10 sugars units is what oligosaccharides
Insulin and glucagon are produced by which cells cells of the islets of Langerhans
Hormone that facilitates the entry of glucose into the cell is insulin
In hypoglycemia, the body responds to low glucose levels by releasing glucagon and epinephrine
Ketoacidosis an acute complication of diabetes mellitus
Autoimmune disorders are associated with what type of diabetes type 1
What is the product measures in the hexokinase method for measuring glucose amount of NADPH produced from the reduction of NADP
Genetic defect in carbohydrate metabolism in which there are deficiencies of specific enzymes that cause an alteration in glycogen metabolism Galactosemia
Glucose is stored in muscle and the liver as glycogen
HbA 1C The fraction of adult hemoglobin that is often measured to assess glycemic control for the past 3 months
What method is the most specific for testing glucose? It only reacts with Beta-D-Glucose Glucose oxidase
Primary function of albumin in the circulation is to regulate the oncotic pressure
Guthrie bacterial inhibition test is used to detect elevated levels of Phenyalanine
The elemental component that sets proteins apart from lipid and carbohydrates is nitrogen
Homocysteinemia is associated with a nutritional deficiency of folate and vitamin B6
Alpha fetoprotein may be included in a testing panel for prenatal screening for neural tube defects
A protein that is formed in response to a specific stimulus and is synthesized by plasma cells is known as Immunoglobulin
Most common method testing for albumin determination Dye Binding method
What are the common dyes us in Dye binding BCG, BCP, and Methyl Orange
A/G ratio is the calculation commonly used to assess the ratio of the major plasma protein components
haptoglobin the protein that is able to bind free hemoglobin in the plasma
Monoclonal band of IgM in gamma globulin region, serum hyperviscosity, less bone pain & fewer infections that multiple myeloma Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
higher incidence of infections, monoclonal band of IgG or IgA in the gamma globulin region, severe bone pain Multiple myeloma
What protein is activated by thrombin to form a clot fibrinogen
Classic method for quantification of total proteins is based on what Kjeldahl method
Protein synthesis occurs mainly in what organ liver
C-reactive protein has become an effective tool in predicting what cardiovascular inflammation
Zero-order kinetics clinical assays that measure enzyme activities
What enzyme shows the greatest specificity for hepatocellular liver damage alanine aminotransferase
A woman in her 3rd trimester of pregnancy would be expected to have high levels of what ALP
Coenzyme an organic, non-protein molecule that is necessary for enzyme activation
Extremely elevated activity of what enzyme is consistent with Duchenne type MD CK
What enzyme is used in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma ACP
Primary tissue source of amylase pancreas
Enzyme to assess liver function Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase
Factors determining the rate of enzyme reaction: pH, temperature, cofactors, substrate concentration
what enzymes are generally used quantitatively to help diagnose acute pancreatitis Amylase and lipase
What is the diagnosis: CK-moderately increased, LD-moderately increased, and LD-1 is increased Myocardial infarcction
fatty acids yield energy through beta oxidation
The formula used to calculate indirect LDL cholesterol levels is: Friedewald equation
What lipid fractions are very large molecules with a low density & give plasma a milky appearance when present in increased amounts? chylomicrons
What forms of cholesterol will be measured using the cholesterol oxidase enzymatic method? esterfied and free
Which alipoprotein is a variant of LDL and has been associated with elevated risk of CHD Lp(a)
What tests would be included in a routine lipid profile? Cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides
Liebermann-Burchardt procedure the reference method for cholesterol analysis that involves an extraction process used to measure free and cholesterol easters
Measurement of HDL cholesterol using a direct method that suppresses the enzymatic cholesterol other than HDL is called hologenous assay
The most important use of Phospholipid measurement is to assess fetal lung maturity
The lipoprotein that has the highest ration of lipid to protein is HDL
Increased blood ammonia levels may be associated with hepatic failure, encephalopathy, and neurological changes
What is the major organ for excretion and reabsorption of metabolized materials kidney
Use of a cation exchange resin, and elution step and quantification by Berthelot reaction describes the method to quantify uric acid
In a diacetyl monoxime method, diacetyl reacts directly with urea urea
The Jaffe reaction is used for the quantification of creatinine
Caraway method uric acid
Azotemia is the elevation of what uric acid, creatinine, and urea
The normal ratio for creatinine 10:1 to 20:1
What is the most common test used to assess kidney function urinalysis
Hematuria, proteinuria, elevated BUN & Creatinine, and Hyaline & Granular Casts Acute Glomerularnephritis
Endogenous substance used to assess the glomerular filtration rate that affords the most accurate measure of renal clearance creatinine
The nitrogenous end product of catabolism of purines from dietary endogenous sources is uric acid
Creatinine reacts with strong alkaline picrate to form a yellow-red compound. This reaction is Jaffe reaction
Uric acid may be determined with The enzyme urease and the formation of a blue color with phosphotungstic acid
urea ref range 6-20mg/dL
Creatinine ref range 0.6-1.1 mg/dL
Uric acid ref range 0.5-7.2 mg/dL
Ammonia ref range 10-60 microliters/dl
The cation present in the greatest concentration extracellularly is sodium
Sodium and potassium levels in the blood are measured using ion selective electrodes
Lab method of choice for detecting cystic fibrosis sweat test
Electrolyte that is the end product of anaerobic glycolysis and is an early indicator of the severity of O2 depletion lactate
Electrolytic anion that is reabsorbed with Na+ in the proximal tubule chloride
Formula for Anion Gap (Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + HCO3-)
Which organs play an important role in the maintaining the blood pH level? lung and kidney
Metabolic acidosis is a disorder caused by kidney dysfunction
Respiratory acidosis is disorder caused by lung dysfunction
Metabolic acidosis decreased pH, decreased Bicarb
Metabolic Alkalosis increased pH, increased Bicarb
Respiratory Acidosis decreased pH, increased pCO2
Respiratory Alkalosis increased pH, decrease pCO2
The iron-transport protein in the blood is tranferrin
Disorder associated with abnormal excessive absorption of iron from normal diet hemochromotosis
TIBC measures the serum iron-transporting capacity for transferrin
The PTH assay that measures both the n and the c-terminal end of molecule intact PTH assay
The chromogen that produce a colored complex with iron is most commonly used in laboratory analysis of total iron levels hemochromatosis
What trace element is a metal cofactor in the reactions of over 300 enzymes within the body zinc
which electrolyte is a cofactor in the reactions of over 300 enzymes in the body magnesium
Physiologically active form of calcium is ionized
The formation of a molybdenum blue complex is associated with the quantification of phosphate
What reagent is used in a colorimetric method to quantify the concentration of serum calcium Cresolphthalein complexone
What is the primary storage form of iron ferritin
A person who is deficient of chromium may develop insulin resistance and glucose intolerance
cobalt is an essential element in which of the following vitamins vitamin B12
Serum iron: decreased, TIBC: increased, Transferrin: decreased, Serum ferritin: decreased Iron deficiency anemia
Enzymes most commonly analyzed to assess liver condition are ALT and AST
What disease is the measurement of brain type natriuretic peptide most useful congestive heart failure
The enzyme system that catalyzes the conjugation of bilirubin is known as Uridine diphosphate glucotonyl transferase
The most common method of bilirubin testing is Jendrassik and Groff method
The enzyme that originates in the liver, correlates with elevated ALP liver isoenzymes and is very sensitive to metastatic liver cancer 5'nucleotidase
Chronic hepatitis is diagnosed by the presence of what clinical finding elevated levels of liver enzymes for greater than 6 month period of time
What is the clinical usefulness of measuring Albumin cobalt binding for IMA Is used to diagnose and monitor Acute MI
The most common method of Urobilinogen testing Malloy and Evelyn
Addison's disease corresponds with decreased cortisol levels
Pituitary secretion of ACTH is inhibited by elevated levels of cortisol
Glucocorticoid hormones major function is the regulation of blood glucose hemostasis
A prolactinoma is a _______ that secretes prolactin pituitary tumor
The principle method used to measure hormone levels in blood in most clinical labs Immunoassays
Estrogen is what type of hormone steroid
Follicle Stimulating Hormone is what type of hormone glycoprotein
progesterone is what type of hormone steroid
lutenizing hormone is what type of hormone glycoprotein
androsterone is what type of hormone steroid
Oncogene a gene which encodes a protein that, when mutated, promotes uncontrolled cell growth
Glycolytic enzymes are effective indicators of tumor progression because malignant cells have high rate of glycolytic activity
The most ommon method of tumor marker analysis is quantitative immunoassay
NMP is a tumor marker designed for what purpose test for recurrence of bladder cancer
A markedly elevated clinical usefulness of measuring carcinoembyonic antigen monitoring for recurrence of colon cancer
What is used to assist in diagnosing pancreatic cancer Serum amylase, CA 50 and CA 19.9
Why is the administration of Leucovorin necessary after a methotrexate infusion to reverse the effects of DNA synthesis inhibition
Mechanistic Cellular and biological effects of toxins
clinical Interrelationship of toxins and disease
Descriptive analysis of animal exposure to toxins
forensic mediolegal consequences of toxin exposure
A(unk)/A(std) X C(std) = C(unk) Beer's law
LDL=TC-HDL-(trig/5) Friedwalds formula
Created by: pamela18