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BMS 300- Unit 5

muscle that raises and lowers testes cremastor muscle
muscle that wrinkles skin in the scrotum tunica dartos
countercurrent circulation in the testes pampiniform plexus
testicular descent done by the gubernaculum *stimulated by insulin-like 3
cryptorchism undescended testes (can be self-corrected or done surgically)
leydig cells produce testosterone/in interstitial space
sertoli cells nurse cells; secrete inhibin; support germ cells; form tight junction; phagocytose defective sperm; secrete AMH
male hormone cycles every 90 minutes
sperm is transferred through the vas deferens via peristalsis
balbourethral gland pre-ejaculate to cleanse the urethra
seminal vesicles 55% of ejaculate (fructose for energy)
prostate gland 40% of ejaculate; alkaline buffer for epididymal secretions and vaginal fluid
BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy; continued prostate growth b/c of DHT
treatment for BPH PROSCAR (5 alpha reductase inhibitor-> doesn't allow testosterone to be converted to DHT)
falling sperm counts may be due to plastic (endocrine disrupters)
anabolic steroids negative feedback on GnRH/LH secretion-> stop producing testicular testosterone *decreased libido (no estradiol) *long bone cartilage stops growing
anabolic steroids are stored in _____ in the body fat
atresia death of follicles in the ovary (most have this fate)
theca cells surround the granulosa cells around the egg (make testosterone-> converted to estradiol)
zona pellucida shell around the ovum
dominant follicle biggest follicle at a specific time- releases hormones that stop the growth of others
prostaglandins in ovary final stage before ovulation- theca cell contraction (COX II pathway)
corpus luteum "yellow body" produces progesterone to maintain pregnancy (yellow b/c of fat)
how many oocytes start to mature each day? 10-25
how many oocytes at birth? 1 million
how many oocytes before birth? 7 million
how many oocytes reach maturity? 400-500
how many oocytes at menopause? <1000
how fast do eggs travel through the fallopian tube? 5-6 inches per day
fimbria massage the ovary to get the egg out
how does Plan B work? makes the fertilized egg move too quickly so that the uterus kills it
primary function of menstruation? to get rid of the endometrium (not the egg)
FSH (female) stimulates development of follicles, induces estradiol production, secretes inhibin
LH (female) stimulates testosterone production by theca cells; induces ovulation; maintains corpus luteum
how does puberty begin? sex steroids are released in the same amounts, but receptors become less sensitive
assistance of getting sperm to ampulla uterine contractions, peristalsis in isthmus
ways sperm die before they get to site of fertilization acidity in vagina, WBCs in uterus, wrong oviduct
capacitation sperm lose protein coat to swim more strongly (occurs in uterus)
acrosome reaction breakdown of membrane w/ enzymes for fertilization
corticol reaction oocyte releases enzymes to harden zona pellucida
when does a fertilized egg become a zygote? when male and female pronuclei fuse
Trisomy 21 down's syndrome
sex rations conception: 160 males:100 females age 65: 80 males: 800 females
sex determination SRY gene (on Y chromosome) creates testes; Leydig cells secrete testosterone to differentiate Wolffian duct; Sertoli cells produce MIS/AMH which causes Mullerian duct to regress (default=Mullerian)
testosterone in early development epididymis, vas deferens. seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct
dihydrotestosterone in early development development of penis, scrotum, prostate
absence of MIS in early development mullerian ducts transform into uterus, fallopian tubes, inner vagina
absence of testosterone in early development wolffian ducts regress; outer vagina and external genitalia develop
embryonic mortality >50% (2nd week of pregnancy)
are most genetic abnormalities due to sperm or egg? egg; much older
Klinefelter's syndrome XXY male
Turner's syndrome X
androgen insensitivity syndrome testosterone is released, but cells lack functional androgen receptors; no wolffian ducts; female external genitalia (XY genotype)
how do we prevent estradiol from going to fetus's brain? steroid hormone binding globulin prevents it (testosterone gets through for males)
sexual orientation 6th month of pregnancy; wrong hormone exposure; SDN-POA (sexual dimorphic nucleus of the pre-optic area) gets larger (lesbian) or smaller (gay)
contraception versus birth control contraception: prevent egg from fertilizing a sperm birth control: prevention of a live birth (includes contraception)
type of compound in spermicides nonoxynol-9; ruins the outer membrane of cells
Mirena IUD progestin thickens mucus; negative feedback on LH; irritates uterus to increase white blood cell secretion
non-hormonal IUD irritates uterus to increase WBCs to kill sperm and/or fertilized eggs
cautery electric current to create scar tissue to shut tubes (fallopian tubes or vas deferens)
why does "untieing" women's fallopian tubes not work? shortens oviduct so fertilized egg gets to uterus too soon and the uterus kills it
oral contraception estrogen: inhibits FSH and follicle growth progestin: preovulatory LH surge (thickens cervical mucus)
highest death risk w/ contraceptives smokers age 35-45 on oral contraceptives
hormone assisted ovulation FSH and LH given to women
in vitro fertilization allow sperm and egg to fertilize, put into uterus (10-40% liklihood pf pregnancy per try)
why are men less fertile? endocrine disrupters; high BMI; stress
artificial insemination collect sperm; inject into uterus
intracytoplasmic sperm injection inject sperm (dead or alive) into egg
mice from two fathers XO cells (lost Y chromosome); combined; genetic contributions from two fathers
timing in making sperm 40 days: spermocytogenesis 20 days: spermiogenesis 15 days: transfer to epididymis (75 total)
Created by: melaniebeale