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CSCI Final

QuestionAnswer
In what way is an operating system like a government? It creates an environment within which other programs can do useful work.
____ operating systems are designed primarily to maximize resource utilization. Mainframe
The most common secondary storage device is ____. magnetic disk
A ____ can be used to prevent a user program from never returning control to the operating system. timer
A clustered system ____. gathers together multiple CPUs to accomplish computational work
Two important design issues for cache memory are ____. size and replacement policy
A _____ is an example of a systems program. command interpreter
A message-passing model is ____. easier to implement than a shared memory model for intercomputer communication
Policy ____. determines what will be done
The major difficulty in designing a layered operating system approach is ____. appropriately defining the various layers
A microkernel is a kernel ____. that is stripped of all nonessential components
_____ provide(s) an interface to the services provided by an operating system. System calls
_____ is not one of the major categories of system calls. Security
The Windows CreateProcess() system call creates a new process. What is the equivalent system call in UNIX: fork()
_____ is/are not a technique for passing parameters from an application to a system call. Cache memory
The operating system kernel consists of all system and application programs in a computer. False
Interrupts may be triggered by either hardware of software True
System calls can be run in either user mode or kernel mode. False
Application programmers typically use an API rather than directory invoking system calls True
In general, Windows system calls have longer, more descriptive names and UNIX system calls use shorter, less descriptive names. True
The ____ of a process contains temporary data such as function parameters, return addresses, and local variables. stack
A process control block ____. includes information on the process's state
The list of processes waiting for a particular I/O device is called a(n) ____. device queue
The _____________ refers to the number of processes in memory degree of multiprogramming
A _________________ saves the state of the currently running process and restores the state of the next process to run. context switch
In a(n) ____ temporary queue, the sender must always block until the recipient receives the message. zero capacity
A blocking send() and blocking receive() is known as a(n) _________________. rendezvous
Shared memory is typically faster than message passing. True
Pthreads refers to ____. a specification for thread behavior.
The ____ multithreading model multiplexes many user-level threads to a smaller or equal number of kernel threads. many-to-many model
LWP is ____. placed between user and kernel threads
In multithreaded programs, the kernel informs an application about certain events using a procedure known as a(n) ____. upcall
A ____ provides an API for creating and managing threads. thread library
The _____ model maps many user-level threads to one kernel thread. many-to-one
The _____ model maps each user-level thread to one kernel thread. one-to-one
In Pthreads, a parent uses the pthread_join() function to wait for its child thread to complete. What is the equivalent function in Win32? WaitForSingleObject()
A _____ uses an existing thread — rather than creating a new one — to complete a task. thread pool
Which of the following is true of cooperative scheduling? A process keeps the CPU until it releases the CPU either by terminating or by switching to the waiting state.
____ is the number of processes that are completed per time unit. ____ scheduling is approximated by predicting the next CPU burst with an exponential average of the measured lengths of previous CPU bursts.
____ scheduling is approximated by predicting the next CPU burst with an exponential average of the measured lengths of previous CPU bursts. Shortest Job First
The ____ scheduling algorithm is designed especially for time-sharing systems. Round Robin
Which of the following scheduling algorithms must be nonpreemptive? First Come First Serve
A significant problem with priority scheduling algorithms is _____. starvation
The ______ occurs in first-come-first-served scheduling when a process with a long CPU burst occupies the CPU. convoy effect
A race condition _____. results when several threads try to access and modify the same data concurrently
A semaphore ____. is essentially an integer variable
A spinlock ____. does not require a context switch when a process must wait on a lock
A solution to the critical section problem does not have to satisfy which of the following requirements? atomicity
A(n) _______ refers to a part of a program where a process is accessing/updating shared data. critical section
_____ can be used to prevent busy waiting when implementing a semaphore. Waiting queues
What is the purpose of the mutex semaphore in the implementation of the bounded-buffer problem using semaphores? It ensures mutual exclusion.
How many philosophers may eat simultaneously in the Dining Philosophers problem with 5 philosophers? 2
A deadlocked state occurs whenever ____. every process in a set is waiting for an event that can only be caused by another process in the set
One necessary condition for deadlock is ____, which states that at least one resource must be held in a nonsharable mode. mutual exclusion
One necessary condition for deadlock is ______, which states that a resource can be released only voluntarily by the process holding the resource. no preemption
One necessary condition for deadlock is ______, which states that there is a chain of waiting processes whereby P0 is waiting for a resource held by P1, P1 is waiting for a resource held by P2, and Pn is waiting for a resource held by P0. circular wait
One necessary condition for deadlock is ______, which states that a process must be holding one resource and waiting to acquire additional resources. hold and wait
Absolute code can be generated for ________. compile-time binding
An address generated by a CPU is referred to as a ________. logical address
The mapping of a logical address to a psychical address is done in hardware by the ___________. memory management unit
In a dynamically linked library, which of the following is true? A stub is included in the image for each library-routine reference.
Which dynamic storage-allocation algorithm results in the smallest leftover hole in memory? Best fit
Which of the following is true of compaction? It is possible only if relocation is dynamic and done at execution time.
Consider a logical address with a page size of 8 KB. How many bits must be used to represent the page offset in the logical address? 13
Assume a system has a TLB hit ratio of 90%. It requires 15 nanoseconds to access the TLB, and 85 nanoseconds to access main memory. What is the effective memory access time in nanoseconds for this system? 108.5
Consider a 32-bit address for a two-level paging system with an 8 KB page size. The outer page table has 1024 entries. How many bits are used to represent the second-level page table? 9
Assume the value of the base and limit registers are 1200 and 350 respectively. Which of the following addresses is legal? 1220
In systems that support virtual memory, which of the following is true? Physical memory is separated from logical memory.
Which of the following is true of Optimal page replacement? It is used mostly for comparison with other page-replacement algorithms.
The _____ allocation algorithm allocates available memory to each process according to its size. proportonal
________ allows the parent and child processes to initially share the same pages, but when either process modifies a page, a copy of the shared page is created. Copy-on-write
_____ is the page-replacement algorithm implemented on most systems. Least recently used
_____ occurs when a process spends more time paging than executing. Thrashing
What size segment will be allocated for a 39 KB request on a system using the Buddy system for kernel memory allocation? 64 KB
The _____ is an approximation of a program's locality. working set
A(n) ____ file is a sequence of subroutines and functions. source
A(n) ____ file is a series of code sections that the loader can bring into memory and execute. executable
In an environment where several processes may open the same file at the same time, how does an operating system typically keep track of open files? A system-wide table and a per-process table.
An exclusive lock ________. behaves like a writer lock.
A _____ is used on UNIX systems at the beginning of some files to roughly indicate the type of the file. magic number
Which of the following is true of the tree-structured directory structure? It is the most common directory structure.
The path name /home/people/os-student/chap9.txt is an example of __________. an absolute path name
app.exe is an example of a(n) _____. executable file
A mount point is _____. the location where the file system is to be attached.
Which of the following is true of the direct-access method? It allows programs to read and write records in no particular order.
Transfers between memory and disk are performed a _____ at a time. block
A volume control block _______. contains information such as the number of blocks in a partition, size of the blocks, and free-block and FCB count and pointers
The free-space list can be implemented using a bit vector approach. Which of the following is a drawback of this technique? It is not feasible to keep the entire list in main memory for large disks.
Page caching ____. uses virtual memory techniques to cache file data as pages as opposed to system-oriented blocks.
A disk with free blocks 0,1,5,9,15 would be represented with what bit map? 1100010001000001
______ includes all of the file system structure, minus the actual contents of files. Metadata
The file-allocation table (FAT) used in MS-DOS is an example of _____. linked allocation
On UNIX systems, the data structure for maintaining information about a file is a(n) _____. inode
Which algorithm is considered reasonable for managing a buffer cache? least-recently-used (LRU)
Which of the following is the simplest method for implementing a directory? linear list
Created by: hbilbrey