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Enterprise Final

ISL Old Cisco Proprietary trunking protocol
802.1q New standard trunking protocol
Default VLAN, always exists VLAN 1
Untagged traffic on trunk Native VLAN
Management VLAN virtual network interface associated with VLAN
DTP dynamic trunking protocol, turn off with sw nonegotiate
SVI Switch virtual interface, configured for management
Benefits to using VLAN cheap, reduce traffic, policy, navigability
Set port to always be trunk sw mo tr
Set port to always be access sw mo acc
Set port to actively try to be trunk sw mo dyn des
Set port to passively be willing to become a trunk sw mo dyn auto
What do you need to configure on a router to allow trunk port to route between VLANS? sub-interface
Command to set sub interface to a vlan? encaps dot1q 100 [native]
Do sub-interface require no shut command? Nope, just the actual interface
Do routers use DTP? nope, so you may as well 'sw nonegotiate' on the switch
If using port security on trunk port facing router, how many MAC address MAX to set? 1 MAC for every sub interface, even if they don't have IP's set to the interfaces
Where is switch config data saved? startup-config + flash:vlan.dat
Should you disable CDP on access ports? Yes, they send out information that an access port has no use to know but can be a security risk.
Where should CDP be enabled? Trunk ports, it gives valuable troubleshooting info.
Why did they even invent VTP, its so awful?! Because people are lazy, and this was supposed to help!
Whats the big deal about this VTP thing anyways? Well it has security risks, also with bad implementation it can take down a network.
Disadvantages of ISL? 30 byte header, only 1000 VLANs supported, and only CISCO
Does VTP data travel over access links? Nope!
Which VTP settings need to be the same for switches to accept the data? Password, Domain, Version all must be the SAME
What happens if all the switches are set to VTP client mode? Network may crash. Also cannot change any of the VLAN information.
Do VTP servers store vlan data in flash: vlan.dat? Yup!
Do VTP clients store vlan data in flash: vlan.dat? Nope! They only store it in the running config. This means you save space in NVRAM!
Do VTP transparent switches store vlan data in flash: vlan.dat? Mmhmm!
VTP Pruning dynamically remove VLANs allowed on a trunk to reduce broadcast traffic.
What VTP configuration revision will a switch accept information from? It must be a higher revision number.
What is the revision number of a VTP transparent switch? 0
How can you reset the VTP revision number? switch the VTP domain or set it to VTP mode transparent
How often are VTP summary messages sent? 5 minutes or when creating / deleting / renaming a VLAN.
What should you do before you reset a switch back to VTP defaults? disconnect the cabling, VTP defaults mean that it will accept other VTP info right away.
Should the DNS domain be different than the VTP domain? Appearantly, maybe so people don't guess your VTP domain name to screw with it? Not sure...
Is the VTP domain name case sensitive? iT sUrE iS!
Does vtp pruning update automatically? Yes, even when there are NO configuration revision changes (lets say you only change cabling scheme) it will redo the pruning.
Flapping / Bad MAC address entries? Layer 2 loop can cause the mac address to change between the ports which are part of the loop.
Broadcast storm? Layer 2 loops, cause broadcast traffic to eventually consume all bandwidth of devices.
Duplicate Unicast frames? Layer 2 loops, cause the same frame to reach the destination at different times.
STP Hello Timer! 2 seconds
STP Max-Age Timer! 20 seconds (10 x hello timer)
STP Forward Delay Timer! 15 seconds
Convergence Time of spanning-tree? 50 seconds
Convergence Time of rapid spanning-tree? 6 seconds (3 x hello)
STP Link Cost of 10Gb link 2
STP Link Cost of 1Gb link 4
STP Link Cost of 100Mb link 19
STP Link Cost of 10Mb link 100
Legacy Port States? Disabled, Blocking, Listening, Learning, Forwarding
Rapid-pvst Port States? Discarding, Learning, Forwarding
Port Roles Root, Designated, Blocking (rapid = Alt/Backup)
Spanning tree frame? BPDU
Who becomes the Spanning-tree root anyhow? LOWEST BID!! (Bridge ID)
How do you tell which ports are assigned Root, Designated or Blocked? Add up the STP link values to get to the root, shortest gets the preference (Root or designated).
What is a standby IP? Virtual IP that multiple routers will use.
What is the default priority for HSRP? 100
How much will the priority go down if a tracked interface fails in HSRP? -10
What command must be set on a router for it to resume priority in HSRP? Preempt
How can there be duplicate unicast frames? switch that doesn't have destination MAC for the frame will flood it out all other ports...if there is a loop WHOOPS!
What is STA? NO, its not a wireless station (in this course), its the SPANNING TREE ALGORITHM!
Whats inside that BID anyhow? Priority - Extended System ID (FOR VLANs!) - MAC address
What is the default priority for STP? 32768
What is the default priority for STP if its in VLAN 12? 32768 + 12 = 32780
What is the reference point that STA uses to figure out which paths to block? THE ROOT BRIDGE!
Whats inside a BPDU? ID of the root bridge and cost of the path to it, as well as timer settings
How are BPDUs sent? encapsulated inside ethernet frame and sent to spanning-tree multicast address.
What is the priority range of STP? 1 - 65536
What happened to the STP priority value when they implemented Extended System ID? Priority now multiples of 4096
What could be a problem with using the STP priority primary command instead of setting a value? primary command will set it to 24576 or lower than current root by 4096. It won't update itself if a lower priority switch comes online / added.
What are the ports roles set to on a Root Bridge? All ports will be designated
What would happen if 2 ports on a switch have the same path cost to root bridge? 1st - Port priority, 2nd - lower port ID. Fa0/1 would have priority over Fa0/24
Default port priority? 128 ( portID# is in some small way added to this number )
On a segment with no root port which gets designated? 1st - lowest path cost to root bridge, 2nd - BID is used in case of a path cost tie
PORT STATES – Blocking / Listening not forwarding or learning mac but still listen to bpdu for changes. Listening is about to change to learning and experiences forward delay interval!
PORT STATES - Learning not forwarding but is learning mac. Experiences forward delay interval.
PORT STATES - Forwarding This is like a normal port!
PORT STATES - Disabled This port is turned off!
Forward Delay Interval When ports go through the temporary listening and learning states. Both states get full 15 seconds delay times.
Max network diameter? 7 is default max, delay times allow for convergence.
Portfast? Skip that delay time! Allows PCs to use DHCP properly.
PVST info! CISCO, Pre-VLAN spanning tree protocol. OLD!
PVST+ CISCO! = Now with VLANs!
Rapid-PVST+ CISCO = Now even faster!
RSTP IEEE = Also Rapid!
MSTP IEEE = Multiple Vlan can be mapped to same spanning-tree instance!(huh?)
Advantage of VLAN Spanning Tree Support with VLAN support you can have different Roots for different VLANs! Share the load.
Disadvantage of VLAN Spanning Tree Support with VLAN support comes more BPDUs to handle the different VLANs.
CISCO 2960 STP DEFAULTS! PVST+, priority = 32768, port priority = 128, STP Costs = 10G/2, 1G/4, 100M/19, 10M/100, Timers: Hello = 2, Forward Delay = 15, Max Age = 20
802.1D Old spanning tree standard. 50 second converge time.
802.1w RSTP! Rapid so 6 second converge time (3 hellos) compared to old 50 standard.
Edge Port not intended to be connected to another switch, immediate forwarding state.
How to increment VTP revision #? add / delete a VLAN, add / change a VLAN name.
Default existing VLANs on a switch? 5 = (1, 1002-1005)
VTP Subset Advertisements actual content of the changes that occurred
VTP Request Advertisements Request VTP info, occurs when: domain name changed, summary received with a higher revision #, subset advertisement missed, switch reset
Which ports get prunned by VTP Pruning? The egress port of a switch where the VLAN should not flow past. Ex: (10,20) - S1 X - S2 (20) X= Point where VLAN is pruned.
Can broadcast messages travel between VLANs? No, VLANs are separate broadcast domain, need routing to communicate with each other. Broadcast messages do not travel through a router.
Should VLANs be on different subnets? If you want them to work with routing, it might be a good idea.
Can you use access ports to communicate with a router to cross VLANs? Yes, but it uses 1 port on the router for every VLAN you have.
How can 1 port on a router communicate between many VLANs? Sub-interfaces on the port and the link will be a trunk.
What are the advantages to using Router-on-a-stick? Less interfaces used, save money, reduce cabling complexity, allows for better scaling.
What are the disadvantages to using Router-on-a-stick? Creates a bottleneck, increases the configuration complexity.
If having problems with a Router on a stick, what might be a likely cause? Trunk config (allowed, native, switch side mode), sub interfaces in the correct VLAN / subnet.
If STP blocks loops between switches, how do you get increased bandwidth between them? EtherChannel, bundle ports to get higher bandwidth.
If a link that is bundled in etherchannel goes down, does EtherChannel remain up? Yes, the channel remains, the bandwidth of the channel will be affected however.
If a link in an EtherChannel bundle goes down and later comes back up, does it return to the channel? Yes, it will be automatically placed back into the channel.
Do you need to have EtherChannel set to trunk for it to function properly? No, it can be used on access ports.
How many ports can be bundled through EtherChannel? 8
EtherChannel: port channel mode is set to Auto, what does this mean? Auto means it is PAgP and it is NOT actively seeking to become a channel
EtherChannel: port channel mode is set to Active, what does this mean? Active means it is LACP and it IS actively seeking to become a channel
EtherChannel: port channel mode is set to Desirable, what does this mean? Desirable means it is PAgP and it IS actively seeking to become a channel
EtherChannel: port channel mode is set to Passive, what does this mean? Passive means it is LACP and it is NOT actively seeking to become a channel
EtherChannel: port channel mode is set to on, what does this mean? On means it is forced, using forced can lead to serious issues if there are config problems.
Where does PAgP / LACP channel config communication get sent on? The Native VLAN
STP Costs using EtherChannel? 100Mb = 19, 2x = 9, 6x or > = 5 ... Even if a link in the bundle goes down the cost does NOT automatically update.
Which MAC address does the virtual router use with HSRP? Virtual MAC address.
If a router or link fails when using HSRP and the active router has to switch, what happens to the end devices using the old router? Nothing changes in the end devices perspective, it is completely transparent.
HSRP is the Cisco proprietary protocol, what is the standard protocol? VRRP
In HSRP wich router takes priority? The one with the HIGHER priority value.
If there is no preempt configured with HSRP, which router will become active? The one which boots first.
What is GLBP? Gateway Load Balancing Protocol, like HSRP but handles load balancing better. Still CISCO!
When configuring router sub interface, can you configure the ip address before configuring the encapsulation? No, you must configure the encapsulation before the IP address can be added.
Created by: Datheral