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Chapter 5

Test Monday 5:00

TermDefinition
802.11i the most recent network security standard, conforms to the government’s security standards and uses more sophisticated encryption techniques
Access control defines who can access a computer, when they can access it, and what actions they can take
Adware a program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window
Anti-spam program an alternative to e-mail filtering
Antivirus program protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removed any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files
Audit trail - records in a file both successful and unsuccessful access attempts
Back door a program or set of instructions in a program that allows users to bypass security controls when accessing a program, computer, or network
Back up make a copy of a file
Backup - a duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed
Biometric device authenticates a person’s identity by translating a personal characteristic, such as a fingerprint, into digital code that is compared with a digital code stored in the computer verifying a physical or behavioral characteristic
Biometric payment where the customer’s fingerprint is read by a fingerprint reader that is linked to a specific payment method such as a checking account or credit card
Botnet a group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the internet that are used as part of a network that attacks other network, usually for nefarious purposes
CAPTCHA Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans apart, is a program that verifies user input is not computer generated
Certificate authority - an authorized person or a company that issues and verifies digital certificates
Clickjacking an object that can be clicked on a Web site, such as a button image, or link, contains a malicious program
Computer addiction occurs when the computer consumers someone’s entire social life
Computer crime - an intentional breach of computer security often involves a deliberate act that is against that law; any illegal involving a computer
Computer ethics the moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems
Computer security risk any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software data, information, or processing capability
Computer vision syndrome a condition where the patient suffers from sore, tired, burning, itching, or dry eyes; blurred or double vision; distance blurred vision after prolonged staring at a display device; headache or sore neck; difficulty focusing between a display device and d
Content filtering restricts access to certain material in the Web
Cookie a small text file that a Web server stores on your computer
Copyright gives authors and artists exclusive rights to duplicate, publish, and sell their materials
Cracker someone who accesses a computer or network illegally but has the intent of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action
Cybercrime refers to online or internet-based illegal acts- gives authors and artists exclusive rights to duplicate, publish, and sell their materials; protects an tangible form of expression
Cyberextortionist - someone who uses e-mail as a vehicle for extortion
Cyberterroist someone who uses the internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political reasons
Decrypt to decipher data into readable form
Denial of service attack an assault whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an internet service such as the Web or e-mail
Digital certificate - a notice that guarantees a user or a Web site is legitimate
Digital forensics also called computer forensics, network forensics, or cyberforensics; the discovery, collection and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks
Digital rights management a strategy designed to prevent illegal distribution of movies, music and other digital content
Digital signature an encrypted code that a person, Web site, or organization attaches to an electronic message to verify the identity of the message sender
DoS attack - an assault whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an internet service such as the Web or e-mail
E-mail filtering - a service that blocks e-mail messages from designed sources
Employee monitoring- involves the use of computers to observe, record and review an employee’s use of a computer, including communications such as e-mail messages, keyboard activity (used to measure productivity), a Web sites visited
Encryption- the process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access
Encryption algorithm a set of steps that can convert readable plaintext into unreadable ciphertext.
Encryption key a programmed formula that the originator of the data uses a encrypt the plaintext and the recipient of the data uses to decrypt the ciphertext
ENERGY STAR program helps reduce the amount of electricity used by computers and related devices
Firewall- hardware and/or software the protects a network’s resources from intrusion by users on another network such as the internet
Green computing involves reducing the electricity and environmental waste while using a computer
Hacker to someone who accesses a computer or network illegally
Hardware theft the act of stealing computer equipment
Hardware vandalism the act of defacing or destroying computer equipment
Information privacy refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and the use of information about them
Information theft- occurs when someone steals personal or confidential information
Intellectual property rights- the rights to which creators are entitled for their work
Intrusion detection software automatically analyzes all network traffic, assesses system vulnerabilities, identifies any unauthorized access (intrusion), and notifies network administrations of suspicious behavior patterns or system breaches
License agreement - is the right to use the software
Malware programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter the computer’s operations
Password a private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources
Payload the destructive event or prank the program is intended to deliver
Personal firewall a utility program that detects and protects a personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions
Personal identification number (PIN) a numeric password, either assigned by a company or selected by a user
Pharming a scam, similar to phishing, where a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and financial information, except they do so via spoofing
Phishing- a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail message that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information
Phishing filter a program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites
Piracy the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted software
Possessed object any item that you must carry to gain access to a computer or computer facility
Product activation - conducted either online or by telephone, users provide the software product’s 25-charatcer identification number to receive an installation identification number unique to the compute on which the software is installed
Quarantine - a separate are of a hard disk that holds the infected file until the infection can be removed
Real time location system (RTLS)- tracks and identifies the location of high-risk or high-value items
Repetitive strain injury (RSI) an injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, and joints
Restore making a copy of the backed up files to their original location on the computer
Rootkit a program that hides in a computer and allows someone from a remote location to take full control of the computer
Script kiddie has the same intent a cracker but does not have the technical skills and knowledge
Secure site - a Web sites that uses encryption techniques to secure its data
Social engineering gaining unauthorized access or obtained confidential information by taking advantage of the trusting human nature of some victims and the naivety of others
Software theft occurs when someone steals software media, intentionally erases programs, illegally copies a program, or illegally registers and/or activates a program
Spam an unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup posting sent to multiple recipients or newsgroups at once
Spoofing a technique intruders use to make their network or internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network
Spyware a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user
Surge protector uses special electrical components to provide a stable current
System failure the prolonged malfunction of a computer
Trojan horse - a program that hides within or looks like a legitimate program
Trusted source- an organization or person you believe will not send a virus infected or form a trusted source
Unauthorized access the use of computer or network without permission
Unauthorized use the use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) a device that contains surge protection circuits and one or more batteries that can provide power during a loss of power
User name a unique combination characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user
Virus a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission
Virus definition a known specific pattern of virus code
Virus hoax an e-mail massage that warns users of a nonsexist virus or other malware
Virus signature a known specific pattern of virus code
War driving individuals attempt to detect wireless access networks via their notebook computer or mobile device while driving a vehicle through areas they suspect have a wireless network
Web filtering software a program that restricts access to specified Web sites
Wi-Fi Protected Access a security standard that improves on older security standards by authenticating network users and providing more advanced encryption techniques
Worm a program that copies itself repeatedly
Zombie one whose owner is unaware the computer is being controlled remotely by an outsider
Created by: karmabites