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Beginning Javascript Vocabulary

Array Literals List values in a pair of square brackets. JavaScript arrays can contain any types of values and they can be of mixed types.
Accessing array elements Array elements' indexes start at 0 and increment by 1, so the first element's index is 0, the second element's index is 1, the third element's is 2, etc.
Multi-dimensional Arrays A two-dimensional array is an array within an array. If you fill this array with another array you get a three-dimensional array and so on.
Array constructor A way to construct an array.
Accessing nested array elements Accessing multi dimensional array elements is quite similar to one dimensional arrays. They are accessed by using [index][index].
Boolean Literals Syntax(true,false).
Boolean Logical Operators When used with Boolean values they return Boolean values.When used with non-Boolean values, they may return a non-Boolean value.
Comparison Operators A comparison operator compares its operands and returns a logical value based on whether the comparison is true.
Note: Not only Boolean literals (true and false)assert truth or false, but there are some other ways too to derive true or false.
==VS.=== == just does value checking (no type checking), but === does both value checking and type checking.
Definition of Code Comments Are used for increasing the readability of the code. They are like notes that you can put for yourself.
Single line Comment Anything on the line following // will be a comment while anything before will still be code.
Multi-Line Comment Anything between /* and */ will be a comment.
Console.Log Prints text to the console. Useful for debugging.
Console.Time This function starts a timer which is useful for tracking how long an operation takes to happen.
Console.TimeEnd Stops a timer that was previously started by calling console.time().
Function Definition A function is a JavaScript procedure- a set of statements that performs a task or calculates a value.
Function calling To use a function, you must define it somewhere in the scope from which you wish to call it.
Function hoisting The two ways of declaring functions produce different results. Declaring a function one way "hoists" it into the top of the call, and makes it available before it is actually defined.
If If the condition is true, do this, else do something else (or nothing).
Else A fallback to an if statement. This will only execute if the previous statement did not.
Else If This is like an else statement, but with its own condition. It will only run if its condition is true, and the previous statement's condition was false.
For Loops You use for loops, if you know how often you'll loop. The most often used varName in loops is "i".
While Loop You use while loops, if you don't know how often you'll loop.
Do While Loops You use do while loops, if you have to loop at least once, but if you don't know how often.
Random Returns a random number between 0 and 1.
Floor Returns the largest integer less than or equal to a number.
Pow Returns base raised exponent.
Ceil Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to a number.
PI Returns the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, approximately 3.14159 or in better terms, the value of PI (π). Note in syntax , we do not put `()` at the end of `Math.PI` because `Math.PI` is not a function.
sqrt Return the square root of a number.
% (Modulus) It returns the remainder left after dividing the left hand side with the right hand side.
isNaN Returns true if the given number is not a number , else returns false.
Basic Arithmetic 4 + 5; // 9 4 * 5; // 20 5 - 4; // 1 20 / 5; // 4
Prefix and Postfix increment/decrement operators operators that first increase the value of the variable by 1 or decrease the value of an expression / variable by 1 and then return this incremented / decremented value. They are used like ++(variable) [increment] or --(varaible) [decrement] On the other
Object Literals An object literal is a comma separated list of name value pairs wrapped in curly braces.
Property Access Provide access to an object's properties.
Classes A class can be thought of as a template to create many objects with similar qualities. Classes are a fundamental component of object-oriented programming.
Alert The alert dialog should be used for messages which do not require any response on the part of the user, other than the acknowledgement of the message.
Confirm Make sure you want to do something.
Prompt The prompt() displays a dialog with an optional message prompting the user to input some text.
Concatenation Concatenates two string values together, returning another string that is the union of the two operand strings.
Length Returns the length of a string.
toUpperCase, toLowerCase Changes the cases of all the alphabetical letters in the string.
trim() Removes white space from both ends of the string.
replace() Returns a string with the first match substring replaced with a new substring.
charAt() Returns the specified character from a string.
substring() Returns the sequence of characters between two indices within a string.
indexOf() Returns the index within the calling String object of the first occurrence of the specified value, starting the search at fromIndex, Returns -1 if the value is not found. The indexOf method is case sensitive.
switch Acts like a big if / else if / else chain. Checks a value against a list of cases, and executes the first case that is true.
Variable Assignment Assigning a variable a name.
Variable changing Changes the variable's name.
Ternary Operator The ternary operator is usually used as a shortcut for the if statement.
Created by: 2015enoss