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CIT292 Ch 11 and 12

CIT292 Network Security - Chapters 11 and 12 Terms

TermDefinition
Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP, a TCP/IP protocol that monitors network-attached devices and computers that is implemented as part of a network management system.
Baseling Process of measuring changes in networking, hardware, software, and so on.
Baseline Reporting Identification of the security posture of an application, system, or network.
Security posture The risk level to which a system, or other technology element is exposed.
Security Posture Assessments (SPA) Assessments that use baseline reporting and other analyses to discover vulnerabilities and weaknesses in systems and networks.
Computer security audits technical assessments made of applications, systems, or networks.
Security log files Files that log the actions of users. They should who did what and when, plus whether they succeeded for failed in their attempt.
Nonrepudiation The idea of ensuring that a person or group cannot refute the validity of your proof against them.
Signature-based monitoring Frames and packets of network traffic are analyzed for predetermined attack patterns. These attack patterns are known as signatures.
Anormaly-based monitoring Also know as statistical anomaly based; establishes a performance baseline based on a set of normal network traffic evaluations.
Behavior-based monitoring Monitoring system that looks at the previous behavior of applications, executables, and/or the operating system and compares that to current activity on the system.
Promiscuous mode In a network adapter, this passes all traffic to the CPU, not just the frames addressed to it. Captures all packets regardless of destination address.
Nonpromiscuous mode When a computer adapter captures only the packets that are addressed to it.
Broadcast storm When there is an accumulation of broadcast and multicast packet traffic on the LAN coming from one or more network interfaces.
SNMP agent Software deployed by the network management system that is loaded on managed devices. The software redirects the information that the NMS needs to monitor the remote managed devices.
Network Management System (NMS) The software run on one or more servers that controls the monitoring of network attached devices and computers.
Audit trails Records or logs that show the tracked actions of users, whether the user was successful in the attempt.
Cryptography The practice and study of hiding information.
Encryption The process of changing information using an algorithm (or cipher) into another form that is unreadable by others unless they possess the key to that data.
Cipher – An algorithm that can perform encryption or decryption
Algorithms Well-defined instructions that describe computations from their initial state to their final state.
Asymmetric key algorithm This type of cipher uses a pair of different keys to encrypt and decrypt data.
Key Essential piece of information that determines the output of a cipher.
Stream cipher A type of algorithm that encrypts each byte in a message one byte at a time.
Block cipher A type of algorithm that encrypts a number of bits as individual units known as blocks.
Symmetric key algorithm A class of cipher that uses identical or closely related keys for encryption and decryption.
Public key cryptography Uses asymmetric keys alone or in addition to symmetric keys . The asymmetric key algorithm creates a secret private key and a published public key.
Private key A type of key that is known only to a specific user or users who keep the key a secret
Public key A type of key that is known to all parties involved in encrypted transactions within a given group
Digital signature A signature that authenticates a document through math, letting the recipient know that the document was created and sent by the actual sender and not someone else.
Certificate Digitally signed electronic documents that binds a public key with a user identity
Steganography The science of writing hidden messages; it is a form of security through obscurity. Example: hiding file in picture.
Data Encryption Standard (DES) An older type of block cipher selected by the United States federal government back in the 1970s as its encryption standard; due to its weak key, it is now considered deprecated.
Triple DES (3DES) Similar to DES but applies the cipher algorithm three times to each cipher block.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) An encryption Standard used with WPA and WPA2. The successor to DES/3DES and is another symmetric key encryption standard composed of three different block ciphers: AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256.
RSA A public key cryptography algorithm created by Rivest, Shamir, Adleman. It is commonly used in e-commerce.
Diffie-Hellman key exchange Invented in the 1970s, it was the first practical method
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) Type of public key cryptography based on the structure of an elliptic curve
One-time pad A cipher that encrypts plaintext with a secret random key that is the same length as the plaintext.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) An encryption program used primarily for signing, encrypting, and decrypting emails in an attempt to increase the security of email communications.
Hash A summary of a file or message. It is generated to verify the integrity of the file or message.
Hash functions A mathematical procedure that converts a variable-sized amount of data into a smaller block of data.
Cryptographic hash functions Hash functions based on block ciphers.
Message-Digest Algorithm 5 (MD-5) A 128-bit key hash used to provide integrity of files and messages.
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) A group of hash functions designed by the NSA and published by the NIST, widely used in government. The most common currently is SHA-1.
Birthday attack An attack on a hashing system that attempts to send two different messages with the same hash function, causing a collision.
LANMAN hash The original hash used to store Windows passwords, known as LM hash, based off the DES algorithm
NTLM hash Successor of the LM hash. A more advanced hash used to store Windows passwords. Based off the RC4 algorithm
NTLM2 hash Successor to the NTLM hash. Based off the MD5 hashing algorithm.
Created by: Leisac