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Immunology Last Test

Review for our last test in Immunology Chpts 14-18 DelTech Owens

QuestionAnswer
During blood transfusions, the relevant antigens are on the __ __ __. red blood cells, or erythrocytes
There are __ of different erythrocyte antigens. hundreds
What is the most common type of organ transplantation? blood transfusions
We will focus on the __ system of blood groups. ABO
The ABO system of RBCs is characterized by different __ __ attached to RBCs. carbohydrate moieties
The ABO system of RBCs is characterized by different carbohydrate moieties attached to certain __ and __ on the RBCs. glycoproteins and glycolipids
Differences between blood types are due to enzymes that add specific __ __ at the end of the carbohydrate chain of the glycoprotein or glycolipid. terminal sugars
The A blood group has what at the end of the carbohydrate chain? GalNAc (N-acetylgalactosamine)
The B blood group has what at the end of the carbohydrate chain? (terminal) galactose
The AB blood group has what at the end of the carbohydrate chain? GalNAc and galactose
What does the O blood group have at the end of the carbohydrate chain? It doesn't have either terminal sugar at the end
People have naturally occurring antibodies to the terminal sugars EXCEPT for the ones their RBCs contain. What type of antibody do they develop against the sugars? IgM
People develop IgM antibodies due to exposure to cross-reactive antigens from a wide variety of different __. microorganisms
Why don't you develop antibodies to the antigens on your own blood cells? immunological tolerance
If you have blood type A, then you have antibodies to what type of blood? B
If you have blood type B, then you have antibodies to what type of blood? A
If you have blood type O, then you have antibodies to what type of blood? A and B
Both the donor and the recipient of a blood transfusion must be __. compatible
What does Rh stand for? Rhesus system
The most dramatic effect of the Rhesus system is seen in ? hemolytic disease of the newborn
The Rh antigen is also known as the ? D antigen
If there are D antigens on your RBCs, then they are ? Rh +
Do we develop naturally occurring antibodies to the D/Rh antigen as we do with A and B? No
An Rh(- or +?) recipient can receive a transfusion from an Rh (- or +?) donor once. - receives from +
After someone who if Rh- receives a transfusion from someone who is Rh+, the recipient's body would make __ against the D/Rh antigen. antibodies
What type of reaction do you get when you give a recipient the wrong blood type? hemolytic
Which type of antibody forms against the Rh antigen after the first exposure? IgG
Which kind of antibody can cross the placenta when a woman is pregnant? IgG
If an Rh- woman is pregnant with a second baby that has the D antigen, what will happen? hemolytic disease of the newborn
IgM works at room temperature, but IgG works best at what temperature? 37 C
How many times can an Rh- recipient get a blood transfusion from someone who Rh+? Only once
If an ABO blood typing test is positive, what will happen to the sample? agglutination
If blood with anti-A antibodies agglutinate, then the patient has what blood type? B
If blood samples with both the anti-A and anti-B agglutinate, then the patient has what blood type? A and B
If neither of the blood samples agglutinate during a blood typing test, your patient has which blood type? O
If the blood sample agglutinates when Rh/D is added, then the patient is RH + or -? Rh+
If blood with anti-B with anti-B antibodies agglutinate, then the patient has what blood type? A
If the blood sample does NOT agglutinate when Rh/D is added, the patient has which blood type? Rh-
Agglutination is determined after you have __ the RBCs. centrifuged
When blood typing, the cells can't travel through the gelatin if they __. agglutinate
When blood typing, the cells can travel through the gelatin if they don't __. agglutinate
If the cells can't agglutinate during a blood typing test, they end up where? bottom of the tube
Successful kidney transplants have been happening for about how long? 60 years
Transplanted organs and tissues are called ? grafts
A graft from the same individual to the same individual is called an ? autograft
A graft that is from a genetically similar individual is an ? isograft
A graft from a genetically different individual of the same species is an ? allograft
A graft from a member of a different species is an ? xenograft
What are the major components seen as foreign to the body during a transplant? MHC and HLA
The HLA system is inherited per a typical __ inheritance pattern. Mendelian
The offspring inherits one __ from each parent. haplotype
Unless the parents are genetically similar, children are no more than __% compatible with each parent. 50
2 offspring of the same parents have a __% chance of inheriting the same haplotypes. 25
Grafts are highly ? vascularized
ABO antigens can be found on __, __ cells and __ cells. RBCs, epithelial cells and endothelial cells
Sometimes, this kind of blood cell can also carry ABO antigens (from plasma). lymphocytes
Are ABO-incompatible transplantations possible? yes
ABO-incompatible transplantations are possible with pre-transplant __ and __ therapy to prevent new antibodies from forming. pre-transplant plasmapheresis and Rituxan therapy
The immunological mechanisms of most graft rejections are __ mediated. cell
Transfer of blood serum does not transfer __ immunity. allograft
Transfer of __ DOES transfer allograft immunity. T cells
The reaction to blood antigens and xenotransplants are not __ mediated. cell
__ allorecognition involves the uptake and processing of foreign HLA proteins from the donor graft. Indirect
The action of the donor antigen-presenting cells activating recipient T cell is __ allorecognition. direct
As with any immunogen, the transplant recipient's antigen presenting cells will present the transplanted organ's antigens to the recipient's __. T cells
Effector mechanisms against the graft include cell-mediated __, DTH ADCC. cytotoxicity
Besides cell-mediated cytotoxicity, effector mechanisms against the graft also include ? DTH ADCC (delayed-type hypersensitivity antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity)
Many grafts contain antigen presenting cells from the __. This is part of direct allorecognition. donor
Passenger APCs enter the recipient's lymphatics and stimulate the recipient's T cells to do what to the graft? attack
In cases of direct allorecognition, the donor APCs may look like altered __. self
Which takes longer: a 1st or 2nd set rejection? 1st
How long does a first set rejection take? 10-15 days
How long does a second set rejection take? 6-8 days
A second set rejection occurs when a 2nd organ is transplants from the __ donor. same
Preformed circulating antibodies against vascular endothelial cells of the donor may cause ? hyperacute rejection
CD__ and CD__ recipient T cells attack the graft. CD4 and CD8
DTH (delayed type hypersensitivity) can how long to occur? several days
DTH can causes what 3 problems? 1. vascular damage 2. decreased blood supply to graft 3. inflammation
DTH can be reduced with use of __ drugs. immunosuppressive
1/3 of kidneys are rejected in __ years. 5
If graft is immunocompetent, then __ __ __ disease can occur. graft versus host
Created by: IsaacJ