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ClinChem 6-7 Carbs

Practice for ChlinChem1 chaps 6-7 Carbs and Lipids

Carbohydrates can be classified by the number of __ in the chain. carbons
Carbohydrates can be classified by the __ of the carbon chain. size
Carbohydrates can be classified by the location of the __ group. carbonyl (CO)
Carbohydrates can be classified by stereo__. stereoisomers
What's the 4 criteria for classifying carbohydrates? 1. number of carbons in the chain 2. size of the carbon chain 3. location of the carbonyl group 4. stereoisomers
A molecule containing the carbonyl group (C=O) at the end of the carbon chain (the first or last carbon) is called an ? aldehyde
A molecule containing the functional group on an internal carbon is called a ? ketone
The ketone in a monosaccharide is called a ? ketose
An aldehyde is a molecule ... ? containing the carbonyl group at the end of the carbon chain.
A ketone is a molecule ... ? containing the functional group on an internal carbon.
The aldehyde in a monosaccharide is called a ? aldose
Disaccharides are formed by the interaction of 2 monosaccharides with the loss a __ molecule. water
Examples of monosaccharides include (3) ? 1. glucose 2. fructose 3. galactose
3 of the most common disaccharides are ? 1. maltose 2. lactose 3. sucrose
Two glucose molecules forms ? maltose
Glucose and galactose combined form ? lactose
Glucose and fructose combined form ? sucrose
These molecules are usually insoluble in water and are complex carbohydrates made of more than 20 monosaccharides. polysaccharides
Name 3 common polysaccharides. 1. starch 2. glycogen 3. cellulose
How many glucose units are contained in most polysaccharides? 25-2500
The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage, often occurring after heavy meal, is called ? glycogenesis
What metabolic process involves the breakdown of glycogen to form glucose and regulates glucose levels between meals? glycogenulosis
The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as amino acids, glycerol, or lactate that occurs during long-term fasting is a metabolic process called ? gluconeogensis
Conversion of glucose or other hexoses into 3-C molecules is called ? glycolysis
What is the most important hormone? insulin
What counterregulatory hormone increases blood glucose levels when they are too low? glucagon (among others)
Blood glucose could get low when __ or between __. fasting, meals
Which hormone lowers blood glucose levels when they are elevated? insulin
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by __. hyperglycemia
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to what 3 defects? 1. defects in insulin production 2. defects in insulin action 3. defects in both
The ADA classified diabetes mellitus into what 4 categories. 1. type 1 2. type 2 3. other (secondary mellitus) 4. gestational
Excessive thirst is called ? polydipsia
Increased urine discharge is called ? polyuria
Increased appetite and eating large amounts of food is called ? polyphagia
If you are (what age) or older, you are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 45
If your body mass index is equal to or above __, you are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 25 kg/m2
If your HDL cholesterol is at or above __, you have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 35 mg/dl
If your triglyceride level is at or above __, you have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 250 mg/dl
What kind of syndrome can increase your risk of getting type 2 diabetes? polycystic ovary syndrome
A history of __ disease increases your risk of getting type 2 diabetes. vascular
Onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus is (abrupt or insidious)? abrupt
Type 1 diabetes is due to an absolute insulin __. deficiency
People suffering from type 1 diabetes are prone to (ketosis or non-ketosis)? ketosis
Onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus is (abrupt of insidious)? insidious
Type 2 diabetes is due to a relative deficiency or insulin __. resistance
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus will have autoantibodies to what kind of cell? islet cell cytoplasmic antibodies (ICAs)
Patients with diabetes mellitus may suffer from __ system damage. nervous
Patients with diabetes mellitus may suffer from __ __ __ disease. end-stage renal
Patients with diabetes mellitus are susceptible to ? infections
Patients with diabetes mellitus may end up having what limbs amputated? lower limbs
Some complications of diabetes mellitus include heart __ and __. disease and strokes
If you are less than 25 years old, have normal weight before pregnancy and no family history of diabetes or abnormal glucose tolerance, you are less likely to suffer from __ diabetes. gestational
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) will be less than __ mg/dl. 100
Impaired fasting plasma glucose (FPG) would be between __ and __ mg/dl. 100-125
The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of someone with diabetes mellitus would be equal to or less than __ mg/dl. 126
The normal 2-hour postload glucose (OGTT) would be less than __ mg/dl. 140
The 2-hour postload glucose (OGTT) of someone with impaired glucose tolerance would be between __ and __ mg/dl. 140-199
The 2-hour postload glucose (OGTT) of someone with provisional diabetes mellitus would less than or equal to __ mg/dl. This figure must be confirmed. 200
Glucose oxidase is specific for __ glucose. Beta-D
Hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose by __ __ ... adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form __ and __ __. glucose-6-phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
What is the reference method for glucose? hexokinase method
The interfering substances in the hexokinase reaction include (4) ? 1. some drugs 2. hemolysis 3. bilirubin 4. lipemia
Fasting serum and plasma glucose levels range from __ to __ mg/dl. 70-99 mg/dl
Fasting specimens should be colected after a fast of at least __ hours but not greater than __ hours. 8 hours, 16 hours
What is the preferred screening test for NONpregnant adults? fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
A glucose level over __ is indicative of diabetes mellitus. 200
How do you test the postload glucose tolerance level? Give patient 75g glucose drink and test 2 hours later.
You must ingest at least __ grams of glucose for 3 days before taking a glucose tolerance test. 150
__ __ is an index of the patient's average blood glucose over a 2-3 month period. Glycosylated hemoglobin
A patient does not need to __ before being tested for glycosylated hemoglobin. fast
Albuminuria can occur due to a vascular dysfuntion to the __ __, which normally that allows albumin to pass through. glomerular membrane
Vascular __ can cause leakage that results in further damage to blood vessels, causing albuminuria. inflammation
Microalbumin is __ before overt proteinuria. positive
One way that proteinuria is defined is __ - __ mg of albumin in urine per 24 hours. 30-300
30-300 ug of albumin per mg of creatinine on 2 or 3 urine collections is one indication of __. proteinuria
__ are a class of organic compounds that are potentially esters of fatty acids. Lipids
Lipids are (soluble or insoluble?) in organic solvents. soluble
Lipids are nearly (soluble or insoluble?) in water. insoluble - lipids are hydrophobic
What are the 4 major kinds of lipids? 1. cholesterol 2. triglycerides 3. phospholipids 4. glycolipids
What are the 5 classes of lipids? 1. sterol derivatives 2. fatty acids 3. glycerol esters 4. sphingosine derivatives 5. terpenes
Cholesterol is the primary __ derivative in animals and humans. sterol
Cholesterol contains how many carbon atoms and how many fused rings? 27 atoms, 4 rings
What are the 4 cholesterol fused rings called? a,b,c,d
What kind of cholesterol is absorbed in the diet, bile, intestinal secretions, and cells. exogenous cholesterol
Where is endogenous cholesterol produced? liver
What is endogenous cholesterol made from? simple molecules including acetate
What is the simplest form of lipid? fatty acid
What is the chemical symbol for fatty acids? RCOOH
What kind of fatty acids contain an alkyl chain without a double bond between C atoms? saturated fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids contain __ double bond. one
Polyunsaturated fatty acids contain __ double bond. more than one
Glycerol esters are one of the common alcohols found in human __. metabolism
Glycerol has how many carbons in a molecule and has how many hydroxyl groups? 3 of both
What is the most common glycerol ester in blood plasma? triglycerides
What are triglycerides made from? glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Lipids are transported by complex micellar structures called ? Lipoproteins
What are the 5 categories of lipoproteins? 1. chylomicrons 2. VLDL 3. IDL 4. LDL 5. HDL
Apolipoproteins are proteins found as an integral part of what molecule? lipoprotein molecules
Apolipoproteins are categorized into what 5 classes? a,b,c,d,e
What are the 4 lipoprotein metabolism pathways? 1. lipid absorption 2. exogenous 3. endogenous 4. reverse cholesterol
The exogenous lipoprotein metabolism pathway is composed of __. chylomicrons
The largest and least dense of the lipoprotein classes is ? chylomicrons
Which pathway involves the metabolism of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) to low density lipoproteins (LDL). endogenous pathway
Which class of lipoproteins is the major transporter of cholesterol in plasma to peripheral tissues? LDL
LDL is used as a structural component of ? cell membranes
Which lipoprotein metabolic pathway is formed from lipids absorbed in the intestines? exogenous pathway
LDL is used as a precursor of ? steroid hormones
Which lipoprotein metabolic pathway transports dietary or exogenous triglycerides from the intestine to the hepatic or peripheral cells? exogenous pathway
LDL is used for storage of cholesterol as ? esters
Which is the smallest and most dense lipoprotein? HDL (duh)
Which class of lipoprotein/cholesterol is the most atherogenic and is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD)? LDL
Where is HDL lipoprotein secreted from? liver and intestinal mucosal cells
HDL actually provides protection from ? coronary heart disease
Abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood is called ? hyperlipidemia
What is the most commonly ordered screening test for hyperlipidemia? total cholesterol test
About what percentage of total cholesterol in plasma is carried by LDL? 70-75%
About what percentage of total cholesterol in plasma is carried by HDL? 15-20%
About what percentage of total cholesterol in plasma is carried by VLDL and chylomicrons? 5-10%
Cigarette smoking is or is not a major risk factor that alters your LDL levels? It is
A major risk factor concerning unhealthy LDL levels includes an HDL level of less than how many mgs per dl? 40mg/dl
Hypertension, another risk factor for LDL cholesterol, is when your blood pressure is at or above ? 140/90
What 2 risk factors for LDL cholesterol levels are beyond your control? 1. age (45 men and 55 women) 2. family history of congestive heart failure
What is the name of the most commonly performed enzymatic procedure? cholesterol oxidase
The 1st step in the cholesterol oxidase reaction involves hydrolysis of __ __ by cholesterol esterase. cholesteryl esters
The cholesterol oxidase enzymatic reaction must compete with which 3 interfering substances? 1. bilirubin 2. ascorbic acid 3. hemoglobin
What is the preferred range for cholesterol? less than 200 mg/dL
A specimen drawn for cholesterol oxidase testing does not have to be taken after a patient has __. fasted
What is the reference range for triglycerides? less than 150mg/dL is good
If triglyceride levels are really high, how will blood plasma or serum look? turbid or milky
HDL is measured in samples in which the LDL and VLDL have been __ and __. precipitated and removed
What is the preferred range for HDL? at least 60mg/dL
You are at high risk of CAD if your HDL levels are less than ? 35mg/dL
What formula is used to calculate LDL-C? Friedewald formula
What else must be determined before you can use the Friedewald formula to calculate LDL-C? 1. total cholesterol 2. HDL-C 3. triglycerides
What is the Friedewald formula? LDL = (total cholesterol) - (HDL-C + TG/5)
The Friedewald formula will not yield valid results if the patient's triglyceride levels are over ? 400mg/dL
What is the preferred range for LDL levels? 100-130mg/dL
What level of LDL is considered high risk for CAD? Over 160
Metabolic syndrome is a group of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote development of ? atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
What are the 5 most commonly recognized risk factors for metabolic syndrome? 1. low HDL 2. high LDL 3. high triglycerides 4. high blood pressure 5. high blood glucose
Created by: IsaacJ