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ch. 12

ethical social issues in information systems

accountability the mechanisms for assessing responsibility for decisions made and actions taken
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) type of RSI in which pressure on the median nerve through the wrist's bony carpal tunnel structure produces pain.
computer abuse the commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but are considered unethical.
computer crime the commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system.
computer vision syndrome (CVS) eyestrain condition related to computer display screen use; symptoms include headaches, blurred vision, and dry and irritated eyes.
cookies tiny file deposited on a computer hard drive when an individual visits certain web sites. used to identify the visitor and track visits to web site.
copyright a statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property against copying by others for any purpose during the life of the author plus an additional 70 years after the author's death.
descartes' rule of change if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all.
digital divide large disparities in access to computers and the internet among different social groups and different locations.
digital millennium copyright act (DMCA) adjusts copyright laws to the internet age by making it illegal to make, distribute, or use devices that circumvent technology-based protections of copy-righted materials.
due process a process in which laws are well-known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that laws are applied correctly.
ethical "no free lunch" rules assumption that all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone else, unless there is a specific declaration otherwise, and that the creator wants compensation for the work.
ethics principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals acting as free moral agents to make choices to guide their behavior.
fair information practices (FIP) A set of principles originally set forth in 1973 that governs the collection and use of information about individuals and forms the basis of most U.S. and European privacy laws.
golden rule Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
immanuel kant's categorical imperative a principle that states that if an action is not right for everyone to take it is not right for anyone.
information rights the rights that individuals and organizations have with respect to information that pertains to themselves.
informed consent consent given with knowledge of all the facts needed to make a rational decision.
intellectual property intangible property created by individuals or corporations that is subject to protections under trade secret, copyright, and patent law.
liability the existence of laws that permit individuals to recover that damages done to them by other actors, systems, or organizations.
non-obvious relationship awareness (NORA) technology that can find obscure hidden connections between people or other entities by analyzing information from many different sources to correlate relationships.
opt-in model of informed consent permitting prohibiting an organization from collecting any personal information unless the individual specifically takes action to approve information collection and use.
opt-out model of informed consent permitting the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected.
P3P industry standard designed to give users more control over personal information gathered on web sites they visit. stands for platform for privacy preferences project.
patent a legal document that grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for 17 years; designed to ensure that inventors of new machines or methods are rewarded for their labor while making widespread use of their inventions.
privacy the claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or the state.
profiling the use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals.
repetitive stress injury (RSI) occupational disease that occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions with high impact loads or thousands of repetitions with low-impact loads.
responsibility accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions one makes.
risk aversion principle principle that one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
safe harbor private self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the objectives of government regulations but does not involve government regulation or enforcement.
spam unsolicited commercial e-mail.
spyware technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge.
technostress stress induced by computer use; symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and enervation.
trade secret any intellectual work or product used for business purpose that can be classified as belonging to that business, provided it is not based on information in the public domain.
utilitarian principle principle that assumes one can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
web beacons tiny objects invisibly embedded in e-mail messages and web pages that are designed to monitor the behavior of the user visiting a web site or sending e-mail.
Created by: 1493084379