Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Microbiolog 1 TB pra

Practice test for Microbiology 1 on tuberculosis for DelTech Owens

QuestionAnswer
Tuberculosis primary affects what area of the body? respiratory
Tuberculosis can become systemic and affect what 5 body systems? 1. kidneys 2. skin 3. bones 4. reproductive 5. urinary
TB bacilli progress from the __ into the blood stream or lymphatic system. alveoli
The immune system kills many TB bacilli, but local tissues are __ in the process. necrotized
What do macrophages do to the TB bacilli when they are unable to eliminate them? wall them off
When macrophages wall off the TB bacilli, what does this form? granuloma
Name 3 modes of transmission for TB. 1. airborne droplet 2. inhalation 3. close proximity
TB bacilli progress from the alveoli into the __ or __. blood stream or lymphatic system
When you first catch TB, what symptoms are presented? none
TB can remain latent for how long? years
A latent TB infection can become active after how long? any given time
A primary TB infection causes a persistent ? productive cough
When does a cough due to TB infection often produce? 1. phlegm 2. blood
A victim of TB often (gains or loses?) weight. loses
A person with TB may feel pain where? chest
A victim of TB does this a lot, especially at night. sweats
What are the 7 symptoms often associated with TB? 1. cough 2. weight loss 3. chest pain 4. sweating 5. fatigue 6. fever 7. trouble breathing 8. wheezing
TB granulomas often look like grey __ on an X-ray. splotches
What are the 2 primary drugs used to treat TB? 1. Isoniazid 2. Rifampin
How long does TB drug therapy take to work? 6-12 months
The prognosis for someone with TB is __ if caught early. excellent
TB patients have an excellent prognosis if they take their __ as prescribed. medications
What are the 4 drugs used to treat TB? 1. Isoniazid 2. Rifampin 3. Ethambutol 4. Pyrazinamide (list did not include aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, but they also apply)
If TB patients don't get their meds or go untreated, the mortality rate is ? 50-60%
The main reason that people are dying of TB is due to lack of ? meds
Patients with TB must be kept in a special __ room. isolation
The isolation rooms for TB are private and have __ air pressure. negative
How many air exchanges are allowed per hour in a TB patient's room? 6
A lab that is working with TB must have __ pressure and is allowed __ air exchanges per hour. negative, 6-12
What kind of equipment must be worn in a lab working with TB? 1. gloves 2. lab coat 3. N95 respirator
What kind of light is used to disinfect a biological safety cabinet after personnel have left? UV
For patients who can't be relied upon to take their TB meds without deviation, what sort of therapy must be applied? direct observed therapy
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacterium related to it are __ __ bacilli. acid fast
What organs or tissues are vulnerable to infection by acid fast bacilli (AFB)? almost all of them
Successful isolation of acid fact bacilli (AFB) depends on quality of the specimen, appropriate processing, and ? culture techniques
When is the best time to collect sputum samples from a patient coughing up AFB. morning
How many morning samples should you get of a patient's sputum to test for TB? 3
If you are unable to obtain a good sputum sample from a patient, you can obtain one by what 3 means? 1. bronchial wash 2. brushings or scrapings 3. gastric lavage
How might you obtain a sputum sample from a patient who is senile or paralyzed and unable to cough? gastric lavage
What are 4 other types of samples you can use to test for AFB if sputum isn't working? 1. body fluids 2. tissues 3. stool 4. wounds or lesions
Body fluids for AFB testing include ? 1. urine 2. blood
In a patient with AIDS and a MAC AFB infection, you would likely test which kind of fluid? blood
When obtaining a sample for AFB testing from a wound or lesion, you would __ the area because using a swab would not yield enough of the mycobacterium. aspirate
When obtaining a sputum sample, why would you want it to be as concentrated as possible? saliva is a contaminant
Can all AFB specimens be preserved? no
Can you obtain AFB samples from bone? yes
The cell walls of acid fast bacilli (AFB) are waxy because they have a high __ content. This also renders them hard to stain. lipid
AFB grow very slowly because their cell walls are afraid of what? water (they're hydrophobic)
The hydrophobic cell walls of AFB make it harder for them to obtain ? nutrients
If an AFB takes on any color when being gram stained, it will be ? purple
Use of __ when staining AFBs allows them to take on the color of the stain. acid
Specimens of AFB taken from nonsterile sites must be __. decontaminated
When disinfecting your work area after working with an AFB, you should use what ratio of sodium hypochlorite? 1:10-1:50
A solution of 5% __ can be used to disinfect your work area after working with AFB. phenol
A phenol-__ mixture can be used to disinfect an area exposed to an AFB. soap
What else can be used to disinfect an area exposed to an AFB besides sodium hypochlorite, phenol, or a phenol-soap solution? aldehydes
How long do most disinfectants need to be applied to an area to safely rid it of an AFB? 10-30 mins
Most disinfectants must be applied for 10-30 mins to clear it of an AFB. One must be applied for a full 30 mins to work. Which one? aldehydes
Which disinfectant is best for use against an AFB? sodium hypochlorite
Which disinfectant is 2nd best for use against an AFB? phenol-soap mixture
Which allows for faster identification of a Mycobacterium: A broth or agar culture? Broth
The optimal growth temp for many Mycobacterium (but not all) is ? 37 C
Mycobacterium is considered a fast grower if colonies can be seen in less than __ days. 7
The higher the Runyon group, the faster the AFB ? grows
Runyon group I mycobacterium are slow growing and ? photochromogens
Runyon group II mycobacterium are slow growing and ? scotochromogens
Runyon group III mycobacterium are slow growing and ? nonchromogens
Runyon group IV mycobacterium are ? rapid growers
Name the 3 culture media used when trying to grow mycobacterium. 1. Lowenstein Jensen 2. Middlebrook 7H10 3. Middlebrook 7H11
Which of the 3 culture media for mycobacterium is egg based? Lowenstein Jensen
Which of the 3 culture media for mycobacterium is a solid? Middlebrook 7H10/7H11
Photochromogens belong in which Runyon group? Group I
Nonchromogens belong in which Runyon group? Group III
Scotochromogens belong in which Runyon group? Group II
The only Runyon group with rapid growing mycobacterium is ? Group IV
Which kind of stain is used primarily when looking for AFBs? Modified Kinyoun-phenol
Which kind of AFB stain is fluorescent? Auramine
Auramine will stain the AFBs a fluorescent __ color, meaning that the test is positive. orange
If you find AFBs using an auramine fluorescent stain, what would you do to confirm the presence of Mycobacterium? Modified Kinyoun-phenol stain
How many fields must be checked for the presence of Mycobacterium before you can declare a sample free of the infection when viewing the specimen with a Modified Kinyoun-phenol/ethanol stain? 300
How many fields must be viewed when examining a specimen with a fluorescent auramine stain? 30
When is a Mycobacterium specimen unacceptable? If pooled or obtained on a swab.
Which kind of media is most commonly used for AFBs? Lowenstein Jensen Agar
Why does Lowenstein Jensen Agar use malachite? It inhibits the growth of other bacteria.
Does malachite green inhibit the growth of Mycobacteria? Yes
When using Lowenstein Jensen Agar, you should incubate the sample in CO2 at what temperature? 35-37 C
How long should you let a sample grow on Lowenstein Jensen Agar? up to 8 weeks
Besides checking daily on a sample that has been placed on the Lowenstein Jensen Agar to grow, what else should you do to it daily? Record its growth to determine which Runyon group it belongs to.
Lowenstein Jensen Agar comes in a slant and is __ green. green
How do you know there isn't any Mycobacteria when viewing it on a slide that uses fluorescent auramine stain? It will be all black and have no orange spots.
What color will Mycobacteria appear under a Kinyoun stain? red
What 4 things are important when using colonial morphology to ID a Mycobacteria? 1. growth rate 2. color (pigmentation) 3. best temperature for growth 4. appearance on the media
Fluorescent auramine is more __ while Modified Kinyoun stain is more __ to Mycobacteria. sensitive, specific
A type of broth culture with a radio-labeled carbon compound is called ? Bactec
How can you tell if Mycobacteria are growing on a Bactec media before visible signs of growth appear? CO2 will be released into top of bottle due to bacterial metabolic processes.
All Mycobacteria produce niacin. But M. tuberculosis can't convert it to ? nicotine acid mononucleotide
What kind of test can separate M. tuberculosis from other bacteria? Niacin test
Since M. tuberculosis can't convert niacin into nicotine acid mononucleotide the way other bacteria can, what will accumulate in a colony of M. tuberculosis? niacin (duh)
All positive cultures need what kind of test? NAP (p-nitro-a-acetylamino-b-hydroxypropiophenone)
If M. tuberculosis is present when running a Niacin test, how do you know the results are positive? turns yellow
How do you know when a sample is negative for niacin when running a niacin test? clear or milky looking
An NAP test distinguishes between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ? NTM (nontuberculosis Mycobacteria)
What are the steps when running a niacin test? 1. extract niacin 2. incubate at room temp for 20 mins 3. treat with cyanogen bromide 4. check results (yellow=positive)
If an NAP test is positive, you split the positive sample in half and then what? add NAP to one but not the other (it's a control)
How long do you incubate your samples after you've split them in half during an NAP test? 4 days
During an NAP test, how do you know if the sample is an NTM? control growth will be less than in the test bottle
During an NAP test, how do you know if the sample is a M. tuberculosis? control growth will be greater than in the test bottle
What other Mycobacteria can cause the colony in the control bottle to grow faster than the test bottle? Mycobacterium bovis
When running a nitrate test, red is (positive or negative)? positive
If the sample does not turn red during a nitrate test, how do you confirm that it is truly negative? add zinc dust
After adding zinc dust to a sample when running a nitrate test, how do you know if it's truly negative? it will turn red
How does a sample of Mycobacterium tuberculosis look? rough and buff
What color is buff colony? off white
What is the most common nontuberculosis lung disease caused by a Mycobacterium? M. Kansasii
What kind of Mycobacterium causes fish tank granuloma? M. marinum
Which has a smoother appearance: M. tuberculosis or M. marinum? M. marinum
M. scrofulaceum causes what in children? cervical lymphadenitis
MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex) is a slow grower that can be a serious problem for patients who are already ? immunocompromised
MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex) comes out what color? buff
What is the causitive agent of leprosy? Hansen's disease
Which kind of Mycobacterium is very hard to culture in a lab? M. leprae
How can M. leprae by cutlured in a lab? using mouse or armadillo foot pads
Which Mycobacterium causes a smoldering pulmonary disease in patients with chronic lung disease? M. xenopi
What is the counterstain when staining TB with fluoresent stain? Potassium permanganate
What is the most common entryway for TB to enter the body? inhalation
What color should E. coli be under a Kinyoun stain? blue
What color should TB be under a Kinyoun stain? red
If your control and your test specimen are the wrong color after staining, what should you do? repeat the stain/test
A PPD test tells us if you've been exposed to TB ? antibodies
If a PPD test on a patient is positive for TB antibodies, but cell samples taken from the patient are negative for TB, what has happened? The patient was exposed to TB does not have the disease.
Why are Mycobacterium called "acid fast bacteria?" Acid-fast organisms are difficult to stain using Gram staining. Once stained, these organisms resist the dilute acid and/or ethanol-based de-colorization procedures common in many staining protocols—hence the name acid-fast.
Contaminated sputum samples must be ? decontaminated
Can you see a Mycobacteria that has been gram stained? usually not
What does PPD stand for? purified protein derivative
Skeletal TB of the spine is called ? Pott disease
A patient with meningitis caused by M. tuberculosis will reveal what abnormalities? 1. high protein 2. low glucose 3. lymphocytes
TB is likely to build a resistance to antibiotics under what 2 circumstances? 1. the patient fails to complete the course of treatment correctly 2. only one drug is given instead of two or more
Mult-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as ? resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin and a patient with no previous history of TB.
Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is defined as ? resistance to isoniazid and rifampin AND fluoroquinolone and at least 1 of 3 injectable second-line anti-TB drugs.
The Mycobacteria from Runyon group III and the TB complexes are all __ pathogenic. strictly
All the Mycobacteria from Runyon group I are __ pathogenic. usually
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. strictly pathogenic and common in the US
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) has a __ appearance. dry rough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) grows best at what temperature? 35-37 C
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) has a __ color. buff
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is niacin (positive or negative?). positive
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is nitrate reduction (pos or neg?). positive
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is inhibited or uninhibited by a NAP test? inhibited
Mycobacterium bovis is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. strictly pathogenic and uncommon in the US
Mycobacterium bovis grows best at what temperature? 37 C
Mycobacterium bovis appears what color? nonpigmented
Mycobacterium ulcerans is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. strictly pathogenic and rare in the US
Mycobacterium ulcerans grow best as what temps? 30-33 C
How can Mycobacterium leprae most easily be identified? It doesn't grow on artificial media.
M. tuberculosis, M. leprae, M. africanum, M. bovis, M. ulcerans all belong to what complex of Mybacteria? Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
Mycobacterium kansasii is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. usually pathogenic and common in the US
Mycobacterium kansassi grows best at what temp? 37 C
M. kansassi is photochromagenic, forming what color of crystals in the light? dark red
Mycobacterium kansassi can be detected by using what kind of probe? nonisotopic nucleic acid probe
Mycobacterium kansassi is in what Runyon group? I
Mycobacterium marinum is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. usually pathogenic and uncommon in the US.
Mycobacterium marinum turns what color when exposed to light? yellow
Mycobacterium marinum grows best at what temp? 28-32 C
Mycobacterium marinum belongs to which Runyon group? I
Mycobacterium szulgai is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. usually pathogenic and uncommon in the US.
Mycobacterium szulgai grow best at what temp? 37 C
Mycobacterium szulgai become photochromogenic at what temp? 22 C
Mycobacterium szulgai become scotochromogenic at what temp? 37 C
Mycobacterium szulgai belong to Runyon group ? II
Which Mycobacterium were we told is tween negative? Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. sometimes pathogenic and uncommon
Mycobacterium scrofulaceum turns orange in the (presence or absence) of light? absence
Mycobacterium xenopi is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. sometimes pathogenic and uncommon in the US.
Mycobacterium xenopi grow best at what temp? 42 C
Mycobacterium scrofulaceum grow best at what temp? 25-37 C
Mycobacterium gordonae is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. sometimes pathogenic and common in the US.
Mycobacterium gordonae is (pos or neg?) for nitrate reduction. negative
Mycobacterium gordonae grow best at what temp? 22-37 C
M. szulgai, M. scrofulaceum, M. xenopi and M. gordnae all belong to what Runyon group? II
Mycobacterium avium complex are all __ pathogenic and __ in the US. strictly pathogenic and common in the US.
Mycobacterium avium complex grow best at what temp? 37 C
Mycobacterium genavense are __ pathogenic and __ in the US. strictly pathogenic and uncommon in the US.
Mycobacterium genavense grow best at what temp? They don't grow on routine solid media, but can grow using BACTEC. Temp not specified.
M. avium complex and M. genavense belong to what Runyon group? III
The fastest growing Mycobacterium on our list are ? Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae
Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae belong to which Runyon group? IV
Mycobacterium fortuitum are __ pathogenic and __ in the US. sometimes pathogenic and common in the US.
Mycobacterium fortuitum grow best at what temp? 37 C
Mycobacterium fortuitum is (pos or neg?) for nitrate reduction. positive
Mycobacterium chelonae is __ pathogenic and __ in the US. sometimes pathogenic and common in the US.
Mycobacterium chelonae grow best at what temp? 37 C
What kind of agar is used to grow Mycobacterium chelonae? McConkey
Which Mycobacterium belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex? M. tuberculosis, M. africanum, M. leprae, M. ulcerans, M. bovis
Which Mycobacterium belong to Runyon group I? M. kansasii, M. marinum
Which Mycobacterium are Scotochromogens? M. szulgai, M. scrofulaceum, M. xenopi, M. gordonae
Which Mycobacterium are Photochromogens? M. kansasii, M. marinum (Runyon group I)
Which Mycobacterium belong to Runyon group II? M. szulgai, M. scrofulaceum, M. xenopi, M. gordonae (they're all Scotochromogens)
Which Mycobacterium belong to Runyon group III? M. avium complex, M. genavense
Which Mycobacterium are Nonchromogens? M. avium complex, M. genavense (Runyon group III)
Scotochromogens turn yellow or orange under what conditions? light or no light
Photochromogens turn yellow or orange under what conditions? light
Nonchromogens change color under what conditions? none-they are buff
When are stool samples likely to be collected from a TB patient? Stools are primarily collected from AIDS patients to determine Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
When are blood samples likely to be collected from a TB patient? Blood is taken most commonly from AIDS and other immunosuppressed patients
Why are tissue samples/aspirates collected from a TB patient instead of a swab? The number of organisms in that site are rare
What kind of samples from TB patients must be digested? Sputums or other viscous specimens
How does decontamination take place in TB cases? Specimen from non-sterile site is mixed with an agent that will kill non-mycobacterium bacteria
Name 3 decontamination agents used in TB cases. 1. NaOH (most common) 2. Benzalkonium chloride (Zephiran) 3. Oxalic acid
What happens after a TB sample has been decontaminated? The agent must be neutralized so that it will not eventually kill the Mycobacterium.
How does the process of digestion help us grow Mycobaterium cultures? Liquefying mucus enables the mycobacterium to contact and use the nutrients in the agar medium
After decontamination and digestion, the specimen is centrifuged in a closed, vented centrifuge to __ the organisms. concentrate
After centrifugation, the __ at the bottom of the tube is used to make a smear and to inoculate media. button
Labs with large volumes of Mycobacterium cultures use an automated reader called ? BACTEC
BACTEC broth contains 14C-labeled substrate; so when the organisms grow, 14C in the form of 14CO2 is released and detected __. radiometrically
__ produce carotene pigment upon exposure to light. Photochromogens
__ produce pigment in light or dark Scotochromogens
__ Mycobacteria produce no pigment; these colonies are a buff color Nonchromogenic
These days, most labs use __ __ __ with or without __ to detect Mycobacteria. nucleic acid probes, PRC
What is the difference between M. gordonae and M. scroflaceum? M. gordonae is tween + grows 22-37C. Turns yellow-orange with or without light. Found in soil. Rarely causes disease. M. scrofulaceum is tween - and grows 25-37C. Found in tap water. Pulmonary infections. Drug resist. Turns yellow-orange under light.
The vaccination for TB is called ? BCG
How can you identify TB? 1. Blood Test 2. Chest Radiograph (X-ray) 3. Sputum Smear Microscopy 4. Culture 5. Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs)
How do you treat TB that has reached the central nervous system? antibiotics and steroids; isoniazid is the most important antibiotic. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/trt/2011/798764/
Created by: IsaacJ