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C++ Coding Basics

C++ is a compiled language and includes OO features. "Quiz 4"

QuestionAnswer
What function must every program have in C++? int main() {...}
How do you denote a comment in C++? Also multi-line comments? // A Comment: also an OS-independent newline. /* ... */ Denotes a multi-line comment.
How should you create C++ source code files? With what extension does the file have? C++ source code files should be created with a text editor and have the extension .cpp
In Windows, the GNU C++ compiler is called DJGPP; How do you compile and run the source code titled hello.cpp from an MS-DOS box? gxx hello.cpp -o hello.exe >>>hello
How do you compile and run hello.cpp in the UNIX shell window? g++ hello.cpp -o hello -Wall -O ./hello
What function does -o hello serve? -o renames the default a.out executable. In Windows the default is A.EXE
What function does -Wall serve? -Wall turns on all warnings.
What function does -O serve? -O optimizes (compiles slower but runs faster)
How do you use the network or GUI interface in UNIX? You must use the X and socket libraries.
How do you use the network or GUI interface in Windows? You must use the Windows API and a compiler that supports them; such as, from Microsoft. GUI/network programming is nonportable.
Where can you find links to free and commercial C++ compilers? Visit cplusplus (dot) com for links.
A program is a collection of what three elements? A program is a collection of functions, and type and object declarations.
s; Expression or declaration
; Empty statement
{s; s;} A block or 0 or more statements is a statement
if (t) s; If t is true then s
if (t) s; else s; else is optional
while (t) s; Loop 0 or more times
for (s1; t; s2) s; s1; while (t) (s; s2;)
break; Jump from while, for, do, switch
return x; Return x to calling function
try {throw x;} Throw exception, abort if not caught, x has any type
catch (T y) {s;} catch (...) {s;} if x has type T then y=x, jump to s else jump here (optional)
do s; while (t); (uncommon) s; while (t) s;
continue; (uncommon) Start next loop of while, for, do
switch (i) { case C: s; break; default: s; } if (i==C) go here optional, else go here
label: goto label; (rare) Jump to label within a function
Give a declaration example: int a[10], i=0, j;
Give a expression example: a[i+2]=3;
Declarations are destroyed at the end of a block {s; s;} (True/False)? Declarations like a, i, j; and expressions like a[i+2]=3 are destroyed at end of block {s; s;}.
18 levels of operator precedence: 1 X::m Member m of namespace or class X ::m Global name m when otherwise hidden by a local declaration
18 levels of operator precedence: 2 p[i] i'th element of container p x.m Member m of object x p->m Member m of object pointed to by p f(x,y) Call function f() i++ i-- static_cast<T>(x)
18 levels of operator precedence: 3 *p &x -a !i (T)x new T delete p ++i --i sizeof x
18 levels of operator precedence: 4 x.*p (rare) q->*p (rare)
18 levels of operator precedence: 5 a*b a/b i%p
18 levels of operator precedence: 6 a+b a-b
18 levels of operator precedence: 7 x<<y x>>y
18 levels of operator precedence: 8 x<y x>y x<=y x>=y
18 levels of operator precedence: 9 x==y x!=y
18 levels of operator precedence: 10 i&j AND
18 levels of operator precedence: 11 i^j XOR
18 levels of operator precedence: 12 x|j OR
18 levels of operator precedence: 13 i&&j i AND THEN j only if i is TRUE
18 levels of operator precedence: 14 i||j i OR ELSE j only if i is FALSE
18 levels of operator precedence: 15 x=y x+=y
18 levels of operator precedence: 16 i?x:y If i is TRUE then x ELSE y
18 levels of operator precedence: 17 throw x
18 levels of operator precedence: 18 x,y Evaluate x and y, RESULT is y
Created by: themagicdwarf