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Immun PostRev 3

Practice for Immunology test 3 at DelTech Owens campus - post test review

QuestionAnswer
The strength of the binding between one FAB with one epitope on an antigen is called ? affinity
The number of binding sites times the affinity is called ? avidity
The higher the affinity, the more of the antibody and antigen that is ? complexed
The higher the affinity, the (more or less?) sensitive the reaction in a precipitation or agglutination test. more (because less of the antigen and antibody will be in the uncomplexed form - uncomplexed particles can weaken the reaction)
During a precipitation reaction, this is what you call it when there is too much ANTIBODY. prozone
During a precipitation reaction, this is what you call it where there aren't enough antibodies. post-zone
During a precipitation reaction, this is what you call it when the ratio of paratopes and epitopes is about equal. equivalence
When would the most precipitation occur? (prozone, post-zone, equivalence) equivalence
During a post-zone reaction, each antibody is bound by 2 __; this means that no bridging of 2 antibodies with an antigen can take place. Without bridging, there can be no precipitation. antigens
During a prozone reaction, there are 2 __ bound to every bivalent antigen and no need to bridge 2 __ molecules to an antibody. antibodies, antigen
If no precipitation forms, the patient did not have enough __ to the antigen to form a precipitation reaction. antibodies
Little to no precipitation would form during a (prozone, post-zone, equivalence?) reaction. prozone
In prozone and postzone reactions, the patient appears to be __ for the antibody. negative
In post-zone reactions, the patient's blood can be drawn again to allow an increase in antibody __ to bring the reaction up to the point of equivalence. titer
In prozone, the patient's serum can be __ and tested again to reach equivalence. diluted (remember, in prozone, the titer is too high)
An Ouchterlony test is a __ gel precipitation test. double-diffusion
Radial Immunodiffusion (RID) is a __ precipitation reaction test. single-diffusion
What are the 3 types of reactions possible during an Ouchterlony test? identity, partial identity, nonidentity
A line that looks like a frown in an Ouchterlony test is called (identity, partial identity, nonidentity?) identity
A line that looks like an X during an Ouchterlony test is called (identity, partial identity, nonidentity?) nonidentity
A line with a spur on it - because half of the line is longer than the other half - is called (identity, partial identity, nonidentity?) in an Ouchterlony test. partial identity
During an Ouchterlony test, the top 2 wells are filled with different __ that then diffuse throughout the gel. antigens
In an Ouchterlony test, if both of the antigen wells are filled with identical antigens, the reaction will be (identity, partial identity, nonidentity?) identity
Ouchterlony tests are (quantitative or qualitative?) qualitative
In an Ouchterlony test, the antigen with the __ concentration would form a precipitin line closer to the antibody well. higher
Radial Immunodiffusion is a (quantitative or qualitative?) immunoprecipitin technique. quantitative
Both nephelometry and turbidometry use __ analysis methods to acquire and analyze antibody and antigen lattice formations. optical
In (nephelometry or turbidometry?) cloudiness of the solution is measured by passing a light straight through it. turbidometry
Turbidometry measures the light that goes directly __ the solution. across or through
Turbidometry measures the amount of light that is __ as it passes through the solution. lost
The amount of light scatter is proportional to the concentration of the molecules in the __ __ during an optical test. lattice structures
Which is more sensitive, nephalometry or turbidometry? nephalometry
In (nephelometry or turbidometry?) the light is measured at a 10-90 degree angle from the light source. nephalometry
In nephalometry, a __ degree angle is typically used to test a sample. 70
Both turbidometry and nephalometry are more sensitive than using the __. eye
Agglutination is (more or less?) sensitive than precipitation. more
Agglutination is more sensitive than precipitation because the larger particles enhance __. visualization
A clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins) is called ? agglutination
Precipitation works in cases involving liquid solutions, whereas agglutination involves ? particles (like RBCs)
With agglutination of charged particles (like blood cells) the closer the particles are brought together by antibodies, the stronger their charges will __ each of them from one another. repel
Which antibody works best for agglutination of charged particles? IgM
Why does IgM work better than IgG when agglutination of charged particles is desired? 1. IgM has a greater reach than IgG (Reach) 2. IgM has more binding sites than IgG (more binding sites) 3. IgM functions well at room temperature (temperature) while IgG does not.
What methods can be employed to improve agglutination when running a test? 1. Change pH 2. use IgM 3. use anti-human immunoglobulins with IgG 4. LISS 5. increase viscosity 6. Temp 7. use enzymes 8. agitate/centrifuge
What does LISS stand for? Low ionic strength solution
How does LISS improve agglutination? It reduces the electrical charge of the particles
How can enzymes improve agglutination of RBCs? Decreases surface charge
Agglutination tests using IgG sometimes fail to cause agglutination due to ? electrical repulsion of the particles
To overcome a failure to cause agglutination with IgG antibodies, you can use __ to bind the IgG molecules to one another. anti-human immunoglobulins
Antihuman immunoglobulins can link the __ regions of the IgG molecules so they can bind the particles together. FC
An agglutination reaction involving RBCs is referred to as ? hemagglutination
When the antigen is NATURALLY part of the particle during an agglutination test, this is called __ agglutination. direct
When the antigen is NOT NORMALLY part of the particle during an agglutination test, this is called __ agglutination. indirect or passive
A test that demonstrates the presence of antibodies on an individual's RBCs is called ? Direct antiglobulin test (DAT)
A DAT (direct antiglobulin test) could be used to check what 4 kinds of reactions? 1. autoimmune hemolytic anemia 2. hemolytic disease of the newborn 3. RBC drug sensitization 4. transfusion reactions
Why are direct antiglobulin tests (DAT) called direct? They directly test the cells that have come out of the patient's body
Which kind of test looks for the presence of the antibodies against non-host RBCs in a patient? Indirect antiglobulin test (IAT)
An immunoassay that requires a step to separate (or wash) the bound antigen-antibody complexes from those that are free is called ? heterogeneous assay (hetero=different or separate)
An immunoassay that does NOT require separation (or washing) of the bound antigen-antibody complexes from those that are free is called ? homogeneous assay (homo=same)
Heterogeneous assays are __ to perform than homogeneous assays, but they work better. harder
A heterogeneous immunoassay that uses a labeled antibody bound to an antigen or a labeled antigen bound to an antibody is called ? direct immunoassay
Direct immunoassays are often used to detect an antigen in a cell __ or __ sample. preparation or biopsy
Name 4 kinds of direct immunoassays. 1. enzyme 2. fluorescent 3. radioimmunoassay 4. chemiluminescent
Enzymes, fluorochromes, radioisotopes, and chemiluminescent compounds are __ used in direct immunoassays. labels
If you don't wash the unbound particles from a heterogeneous assay, the results will be falsely __. increased
Indirect immunoassays typically use __ antigens and antibodies. unlabeled
Direct immunoassays use __ particles, but indirect immunoassays use __ particles. labeled, unlabeled
During a sandwich/capture immunoassay, the first antibody captures an antigen from the sample, while a second labeled antibody is used to __ the reaction. see or visualize
The __ __ test is a heterogeneous adaptation of an enzyme immunoassay that is used to test for HIV. Western Blot
The most frequently used enzyme used when running a heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay is called ? horseradish peroxidase
Immune reactions that are harmful to the host are called ? hypersensitivity reactions
Type I hypersensitivity reactions are __ mediated and involve degranulation of __ cells. IgE, mast
Type II hypersensitivity reactions are __-__ cell surface reactions that cause __ and __ activation. antibody-mediated, cytotoxicity and complement activation
Type III hypersensitivity reactions are __-__ mediated and involve activation of __. immune-complex, complement
Type IV hypersensitivity reactions are cell mediated and involve sensitized __ cells as well as activated __. T cells, macrophages
Which kind of hypersensitivity reaction involves antibody-mediated cell surface reactions that cause cytotoxicity and complement activation? Type II
What class of hypersensitivity reaction involves IgE mediated degranulation of mast cells? Type I
Which class of hypersensitivity reaction is cell mediated and involves sensitized T cells as well as activated macrophages? Type IV
Which class of hypersensitivity reaction involves immune-complex mediated activation of complement? Type III
Which hypersensitivity reaction is also known as "immediate hypersensitivity?" Type I
Which hypersensitivity reactions involve complement activation? II and III
Which kind of hypersensitivity is known as "delayed hypersensitivity"? Type IV
Asthma and hay-fever are examples of which type of hypersensitivity reaction? Type I
Contact dermatitis from poison ivy and other causes is an example of which hypersensitivity reaction? Type IV
Good pasture's syndrome, arthus reactions, Rheumatic fever, Grave's disease, and Masthenia gravis are all examples of which hypersensitivity reaction? Type III
Hemolytic anemia, HDNBs, and blood transfusions are examples of which hypersensitivity reaction? Type II
How long does a type I hypersensitivity reaction generally take to manifest? 2-30 mins
How long does a type II hypersensitivity reaction generally take to manifest? 5-8 hours
How long does a type III hypersensitivity reaction generally take to manifest? 2-8 hours
How long does a type IV hypersensitivity reaction generally take to manifest? 24-72 hours
HDNB refers to ? hemolytic disease of the newborn
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDNB) occurs when the mother is Rh__ while the fetus is Rh__. negative, positive
Can HDNB occur if the mother is Rh+ and the fetus is Rh-? No
During HDNB, the mother makes IgG antibodies against the baby's RBCs due to __-__ incompatibility. blood-antigen
Rh+ means positive for the __ antigen. D
How can you prevent HDNB? administer anti-RhD antibodies to the mother at 6 months gestation
Anti-Rh antibodies prevent HDNB by reacting with the RBCs that leak into her system from the baby and __ them before the mother can build up an immunity. destroying
What are the 2 kinds of tests for HDNB? 1. Indirect antiglobulin testing (IAT) 2. Direct antiglobulin testing (DAT)
When using IAT to test for HDNB, you test the __ blood for the antibody to the Rh antigen. mother's
When using DAT to test for HDNB, you test the __ blood cells to see if they are coated with antibody. baby's
In HDNB, the mother produces __ against the baby's RhD+ antigen. IgG/antibodies
Myasthenia gravis, a type III autoimmune disorder, is also called ? Lou Gehrig's disease
This type III hypersensitivity disease is caused by stimulation by antibodies. Grave's disease
This type III hypersensitivity disease happens when antibodies attach to acetylcholine receptors and cause muscle weakness. Myasthenia gravis/Lou Gehrig's disease
This type III hypersensitivity disease is caused by antibodies attaching to basement membranes of the lungs and kidneys. Goodpasture's syndrome
This type III hypersensitivity disease occurs when strep throat cross reacts with the heart, muscle, cartilage, and glomerular basement membranes of the kidney. Rheumatic fever
Serum sickness can cause type __ hypersensitivity reactions. III
Before specific antibiotics and vaccines, some infections were treated by passive transfer of antibodies from animals. This procedure could result in what kind of systemic reaction? serum sickness
Contact dermatitis, a type IV hypersensitivity reaction, can occur when small substances are absorbed through the skin and act as __, causing the skin cells to become immunogenic. haptens
During contact dermatitis, the skin may present with what 5 symptoms? 1. redness 2. blisters 3. edema 4. itching 5. peeling of skin
What kind of test is used to check for TB? Mantoux/PPD (purified protein derivative)
If the Mantoux/PPD test is positive, a __ will form on the skin after injection. welt or bump
DAT tests for antibodies against host __, leading to agglutination. With IAT, you're looking for antibodies against __ RBC's (e.g. anti-Rh antibodies). You put the patient's plasma in with other, non-host RBC's and look for agglutination RBC's, non-host
Created by: IsaacJ