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Antiviral Drugs II

QuestionAnswer
What RNA retrovirus causes AIDS? HIV
What is the specific enzyme that antit-HIV drugs target? Reverse Transcriptase (RT)
What specific enzyme inhibits the formation of viral DNA from RNA? Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RT)
How does RT inhibit the for formation of viral DNA from RNA? Mutation of the RT enzyme is very rapid. Use at least 2 RT inhibitors simultaneously slows the emergence of resistant virus
What are the names of some useful Nucleoside Retro Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI)? Zidovuldin, Lamivudine, Zalcitabine, Stavudine, Didanosine, Abacavir, Emtiricitabine.
What are the names of some useful Nonnucleoside Retro Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI)? Nevirapine, Delavirdine, Efavirenz.
What are the names of some useful Nucleotide Retro Transcriptase Inhibitor (RTI)? Tenofovir
What RTI is given to healthcare providers, after they are accidentaly stuck with a needle? Combivir (Zidovudine+Lamivudine)
What is the responsibility of the HIV protease enzyme? Maturation of the newyl forming viral particles.
What effect does the protease inhibitor have on the HIV protease? Interfere with the processing of viral protein, preventing formation of new viral particles.
What is the name of the useful protease inhibitors? Amprenavir, Indinavire, Nelfinavir.
What is required for HIV enter the cells? HIV must bind to CD4 lymphocyted recpetors.
What is the name of the fusion inhibitor that blocks the binding of HIV to CD4? Enfuvirtide
What is the most effective Tx for HIV? Tripel therapy (combine 2 RT inhibitors & 1 protease inhibitor)
What drug inhibits virus penetration or uncoating. it is also used to Tx & prevent influenzea type A infections? Amantadine
This drug is good for Tx, prevention of influenza, inhibit virus penetration, & also parkinsons? Rimantadine
What drug is used to block the release of influenze virus form infected cells, prevention & Tx of both influenza A & B infections? Neuraminidase inhibitors (Zanamivir, Oseltamivir)
What drug is used topically, IV, & orally for the Tx of patients with herpes infections? Acyclovir
What are the two types of herpes? Type1= Oral, Type2=Genital
This drug is only for cytomegalovirus infections? Gancyclovire
Drugs for respiratory syncytial viral infections (RSV)? Ribavirin, Palivizumab
Drug is Used for the Tx of RSV in infants & young children, not in adults? Ribavirin
This drug is a humanized monoclonal antibody given as an injection at the start of RSV season in high risk children to provide passive immunity. Palivizumab
Drugs for hepatic viral infections? Interferon, lamivudine, aedefovir, & entecavir.
Which drugs are for chronic Hepatitis B/C? Interferon & lamivudine
What are the names of the cell cycles? M-Phase, G1-Phase,G0-Phase, G2-Phase,S-Phase
What happens during the M Phase? Period of cell division mitosis.
What happens during the G-1 Phase? Cell growth RNA synthesis & protein synthesis.
What happens during the G-0 Phase? Resting or dormant stage. No cell division, but cell is able to undergo mitosis.**This phase is most resistant to chemotherapeutics agents.
What happens during the S Phase? DNA syntesis & cells that are in G-2 phase show the syntehsis of specialized proteins in preparation for cell replication.
Anticancer therapy is aimed at? Killing dividing Cells.
How do anticancer drugs operate? Kill a fraction of cells instead of an absolute number.
Do cancer cells mutate? Yes, they contain a mutation that allows unrestricted growth, & they can also mutate in a way that make them resistant to anticancer drug.
What alkylating drug is good for Testicular cancer? Cisplatin
What is the name of the most commonly used alkylating agent? Cyclophosphamide
What are antimetabolites? They compete for binding sites on enzymes or can be incorporated into DNA or RNA.
what is the most commonly used anticancer drug? Methotrexate
What is drug is used to Tx psoriasis, rheulmatoid arthritis, & vatiety of cancers? Methotrexate
What drug prevents Methotrexate from inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase 7 reverses allof its adverse effects excet neurotoxicitiy? Leucovorin
Which antibiotic has a severe toxicity to heart? Anthracyclines
Which antibiotic drug causes arrythmia? Daunorubicin
Which antibiotic drug causes cardiotixcity, allopeica, bone marrow, & depression? Doxorubicin
Which antibiotic drug protects cardiac muscle from anthracycline-induced- toxicity? Dexrazoxane
Which antibiotic drug can cause fatal pulmonary fibrosis & extreme caution must be Bleomycin
Which particular antibiotic drug Tx life-threatening hyperclacemia associated with malignancy Plicamycin
What is the Vinca alkaloid that has bone marrow toxicity? vincristine
What is the Vinca alkaloid that has neurological toxicity vinblastine
What kind of tumors does the hormonal agents Tx ? breast, prostate, & uterus
What is the goal of the hormonal agent? reduce hormone level that stimulate growth of tumor & block hormone receptor
What is the difference between aromatase reaction and aromataste inhibitor? The first increase synthesis of estrogen the latter decrease estrogen production (used in Tx of estrogen dependent breast cancer resistant tamoxifen.)
Names of aromatase inhibitors? Anastrozole, Formestane,Letrozole
What is the first line agent in the Tx of estrogen receptor positive for breast cancer? Tamoxifen
Names of aromatase inhibitors? Anastrozole, Formestane,Letrozole
What kind of tumors does the hormonal agents Tx ? breast, prostate, & uterus
GnRH Analog Inhibit the release of FSH/LH thus reduce synthesis of androgen & estrogen
Drug used for mestastic prostatic cancer? Leuprolide
What vaccine Tx UB carcinoma & IV use;It is non-specific stimulant of reticuloendothelial system? Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) (Causes inflammation)
NSAIDs Inhibit Cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX1) & decrease prostaglandin synthesis.
What kind of risk are seen with longterm use of COX2? Increase risk of mycardial infarctions & strokes.
Indomethacin non-specific, Use gout & patent drutus afteriosus (PDA)
COX-2 Inhibitors specific, less side effects on GI
Rofecoxib Off market caused strokes
Acetaminophen Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis in the CNS. mostly fevers, weak anti-inflammatory
Gold Salts Good for anti-inflammatory
Infliximab Ulcerative colitis(Contr Indi. in TB it makes latent TB active)
Gout Uric acid leads to inflammation
Allopurinal Decrease production of Uric Acid
Colchine Acute attack of gout
Probenecid Low uric acid elimination
Cyclosporine Prevent & Tx transplanted organ rejection because it is a specific T cell inhibitor.
Cyclosporine side effect nephro/neuro-toxicity, thromboembolism, & seizure
Azathioprine Used in conjunction with cyclosporine to reduce the toxicity
Levamisole Tx colon cancer
Created by: rhjordan