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BMS 300- Unit 3

pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium (can't beat because of low pressure return)
diastole filling phase
systole muscle contraction, increased pressure, ejection
stroke volume end diastolic volume-end systolic volume
when does blood flow to the myocardium? during diastole
endurance athletes hypertrophy and increased end diastolic volume
angioplasty insert a catheter into coronary artery, push plaque against wall,
stent insert a tube to replace an artery
conductile system order SA node-> AV node -> bundle of His -> bundle branches -> purkinje fibers
HCN stands for hyperpolarization cyclic nucleotide
there are more ___ than ____ cells in the heart contractile than conductile
p wave atrial contraction (systole)
QRS complex ventricular contraction
t wave ventricular diastole
blood flow through the body aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle
how do you treat high blood pressure? deactivate norepinephrine receptors so contraction of capillaries does not occur
cardic output = stroke volume * cycles per minute (4.9 L per minute)
blood flow for myocardium coronary artery-> arterioles -> capillaries -> coronary sinus -> right atrium
HCN probability of opening depends on how many cAMP binding sites are occupied
HCN rate of depolarization depends on amount of depolarization (and cAMP levels)
lidocaine push blocks Na+ channels
2 differences between skeletal and cardiac muscle cardiac innervated by pacemaker cells (not motor neurons) calcium released chemically (not mechanically)
the autonomic system innervates cardiac, smooth, and glands
nicotinic ach receptors preganglionic in both sympathetic and parasympathetic (ligand-gated ionotropic channels)
ΔP= resistance x flow
Flow= ΔP*pi*radius^4/8*viscosity*length
formed elements fragments of true cells
blood is a type of connective tissue
erythrocytes are not true cells! they're formed elements
reticulocytes can be high because of NSAIDs causing small ulcers
In regions of high O2, erythrocytes bind O2
In regions of low O2 erythrocytes release O2
Shape of erythrocytes biconcave disk
Sickle cell anemia 1 mutation- protein change in alpha subunit of hemoglobin prevents malaria (cell dies before proliferation of bacterium) *heterozygous
bilirubin and bilivaridin in babies exchange of fetal hemoglobin for mature hemoglobin (fetal has higher oxygen affinity), excess bilirubin builds up and causes jaundice (can be broken down with UV light)
what is erythropoeitin glycoprotein peptide hormone
erythropoeitin and doping synthetic has different glycoproteins so they got caught!
osmotic pressure from outside, due to impermeant anions
hydrostatic pressure due to systole; water and ions escape from capillaries
bubonic plague named by "Bubos"- swelling of lymph nodes because of bacterial build up
white pulp germinal region in the spleen that contains immune cells
thymus most active around puberty; selects t-lymphocytes
granules vesicles that contain oxidative molecules (free electrons, HClO, H2O2)
hemagluttin virus- key to get in to cell
neuraminidase virus- key to get out of cell
HxNx H= hemagluttin N= neuraminidase
signs of inflammation + why caused -redness: increased blood flow -swelling: liquid escape from capillaries -warmth: increased blood flow -pain: bacteria bind to pain receptors
three functions of antibodies mask/neutralize toxin, agglutination, precipitation
how do we make so many different antibodies 300 variable regions; 8 joiner regions
professional antigen-presenting cells macrophages, dendritic cells, b lymphocytes (MHC II)
secondary immune response memory b-cells release antibody to attack antigen
humoral immunity B lymphocytes -secrete active antibody that binds to foreign proteins (antigens)
cellular immunity T-lymphocytes -helper -killer *t cell receptors are always transmembrane proteins
what produces increased afterload? increase in aortic pressure
what increases sarcomere length? increased preload
preload is the same as end diastolic volume
afterload a pressure measured in mm Hg that forces the aortic valve open
Created by: melaniebeale