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Patho Quiz Study

Compilation of Patho Quizzes

The body's adaptation to restore or maintain normal function is called Homeostasis
The best example of a cytoplasmic architecture found in a cells hyaloplasm is Microfilaments
The definition of epidemiology is The study of the cause and distribution of disease
The necrosis type associated with the pancrease is Fat
The necrosis type associated wtih the kidney , liver & heart is coagulative
Poor circulation that results in mummified appearing toes is called dry gangrene
Nuclear manifestations of irreversible cell injury include karyolysis and pyknosis
Mitochondrial swelling reversible cell injury
Torch syndrome Toxoplasma Other agents Rubella Cytomegalovirus Herpesvirus
Diseases of a receptors Myasthenia gravis
Hormone related cell number increase Hyperplasia
Cell shrinkage that can be from old age or ischemia is best called Atrophy
Vasculoar degeneration, acidic pH and decreased protein synthesis are sings of Reversible cell injury
Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause Pernicious anemia
Environmental agents that permanently harm a developing fetus are called teratogens
A male phenotype with all stature, atrophic testes, effeminate with possible gynecomastia best describes Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)
American President Abe Lincoln has been felt by some researchers to have been likely to have this autosomal dominant disease affecting collagen that results in increased risk of dissecting aortic aneurysms and ocular lens subluxation. what is this conditi Marfan's disease
Which autosomal recssive condition is associated with increased risk of liver disease (cirrhosis) and emphysema alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT)
Typical of Turner Syndrome (XO) Lack of ovary develometn (infertile); Increased risk of coarctation of the aorta
Which of the following conditions is considered multifactorial in etiology? Diabetes mellitus
which word below best describes the process of maintaining internal steady state or balance wtihin a cell or living system? Homeostasis
Patient type with greater amount of adipose tissue than normal elderly; women; infants
The correct example below that is an insensible loss of fluids is sweating
Transcellular fluids make up a very small % of extracellular fluids. Which of the following is an example of a transcellular fluid? Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Exmaple of active hyperemia blusing
Smallest manifestation of bleeding under the skin below is Petechiae
Hormones or proteins involved in maintaining fluid balance include ADH, Atrial naturetic peptide, aldosterone
melena Tarry appearing digested blood in stool
What % of total body weight is water 60%
White infarction arterial
Red infarction venous (testes/gut)
Causes Caisson's disease and th ebends Gaseous
Emboli type White infarction - Arterial (heart/kidney) red infarction (venous - testes/gut) Causes Caisson's disease and Bends - Gaseous emboli (air in vein)
Arterial hemorrhage can be recognized from venous in that the arterial blood is Bright red and flows in a pulsating manner
Histamine is released from mast cells when they are in a tissue or organ. What are mast cells called when they are circulating in the blood? Basophils
Which arachidonic acid derivatives results from the lipoxygenasepathway, plus they ar eassociated with asthma and anaphylaxis? Leukotrienes
Tuberculosis infections cause caseous granulomas. What type of granulomas are seen with Sarcoid (Sarcoidosis) Non-Caseous granulomas
Inflammation Elevated WBC count, body temperature, ESR
Cardinal Signa of Inflammation Rubor, Swelling, Calor, Dolor, functio laesa
Band cells are also known as Immature WBCs
Complement system, a key component of th ebody's inflammatory response, can be activated by a longer classical and a shorter alternative pathway. They both end up in a common mechanism - which pathway (endpoint) Membrane Attack Complex
Immune System Body Sites Primary - bone marrow, thymus; Secondary - Tonsils, Peyer's patches
Atrophic gastritis adn Crohn's disease are most typically associated with B-12 deficiency
Imcrocytic hypochromic anemia with low hemosiderin stores in the bone marrow will respond favorably to treatment with Iron
Nature Killer Cell from Lymphoid stem cell
Arachadonic acid precursor for cycloxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways
Immunoglogulin found in mucosa and body secretions IgA
Immunoglobulin makes th esecond and largest response IgG
Immunoglobulin associated with allergy and hypersensitivity IgE
Immunoglogulin mounting th eprimary/earliest response to invasion IgM
What are circulating basophils called when they reside in tissues Mast cells
Loss of Cd4 hel;er T-cells and increased opportunistic infectinos are best associated with AIDS
treatment for severe idiopathic aplastic anemia bone marrow transplant
who tends to have secondary polycythemia professional mountain climber
Hematopoiesis from flat bone and long bone
RBC life 120 days
Repairing tears in the endothelium of vessels Platelets
Rapid RBC turnover elevated reticuloycte count
What organism causes pseudomembrane formation in antibiotic induced colitis C. difficile
Arterial emboli Cerebral, kidney, spleen, intestines
Arterial emboli white/pale infarction (heart/kidney)
Arterial emboli Red Infarction venous-testes/gut
Thrombocytopenia Low platelet count < 75K (Normal 150K - 300K)
Etiology Acquired - infectino, bonemarrow suppression, hypersplenism
Drugs effect heparin
ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) immune disorders
Spontaneous Bleeding When platelet count drops below 20K
Thrombocythemia High thrombocyte count > 600K
Thrombocythemia treatment hydroxyuria
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Highest among children, 20% of all leukemia
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) Most common leukemia, 40% of total leukemia, bone marrow transplant the only treatment
Chronic Myelogenous (CML) 15%, affecting adults and increases with advancing age, 90% with Philadelphia chromosomes
CML Mortality Poor prognoses without Philadelphia chromosomes present
Hodgkin's lymphoma 1. nodular sclerosis; 2. lymphcyte predominence; 3. mixed cellularity; 4. lymphocyte depletion
Hemostasis Vasospasm; Platelet activation (locally released factors); Platelet adhesion (von Willebrand's factor); Platelet aggregation; fibrin thrombus formation
Inhibition of excessive clotting circulating anticoagulants; protein C, Protein S, antithrombin III; Thrombomodulum released by endothelial cells
Fibrinolysis TPA: tissue plasminogen factor; Urokinase
Hypocoagulability coumadin; heparin
Vitamin K utilization by liver inhibited by coumadin (warfarin)
Hypercoagulability Venous Red clots: RBC/fibrin; Stasis; Inappropriate activation of clotting factors; surgery, malignancy, CHF, obesity, Ocs, estrogens, HPT, DM, polycythemia; pregnancy
Hemophilia congenital bleeding disorder
hemophilia A common disorder - 2/10,000; lacking factor VIII
von Willebrand's Factor Most common genetric bleeding disorder
von Willebrand's Factor 1% of population
von Willebrand's Factor autosomal dominant; affect both platelets and factor VIII
Virchow's triad slow venous flow; hypercoagulability; inflammation of vessel wall
DVT 25% clinically evident edema/swelling discrepancy in limb size Homan's sign
40% DVT lead to Pulmonary emboli
50% DVT lead to postphlebitic syndrome
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy Systemic disorder of thrombosis and hemorrhage with evidence of widespread pro-coagulant activity fibrinolytic activation inhibitor consumption and end organ damage from thrombosis
DIC treatment blood, clotting factors, anticoagulation
DIC Mortality 60 - 80% of cases
DVT Treatment Reduce risk factors prophylactic therapy anticoagulant therapy thrombolytic therapy greenfield filter
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic Purpura Mortality - 90% Rare 1/50,000 hospital patients
IgM Primary response
IgG Secondary response, placenta
IgA Secretions/mucosal
IgD Intercellular signaling
IgE Hypersensitivity, least amount
Created by: jonyeh



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