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Pharmacology Final

Notes for question re: Chemotherapeutic drugs

This is a compound that should inhibit the growth of bacteria without harming the human host? Antibiotics
This a drug which arrests the growth and replication of a bacterium? Bacteriostatic
This compound kills the bacteria? Bactericidal
This is the lowest concentration of drug that inhibits growth of the organism? Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
These are B-Lactam antiboitics, they are also inhibitors of cell wall synthesis? Penicilins, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Monobatams
These are B-Lactamase Inhibitors and are also inhibitors of cell wall synthesis? Clavulanic acid, Salbactam, Tazobactam
The first step in synthesis of bacterial cell wall is a cross-linking of adjacent peptidoglycan strands is? Tranpeptidation
What type of drugs inhibits the crosslinking of cell wall components? Penicillins
This natural Penicillin , best choice for treating syphilis patients? Benzathine Pen G
These drugs are reserved for penicillinase- producing Staph aureus? Nafcillin, Oxacillin
These drugs are used for extended pectum effective against pseudomonas aeruginosa? Piperacillin,Ticarcillin
This is first-line drug in the treatment of gonorrhea; also the drug of choice in the treatment of meningitis in children because of its effectiveness against Hemophyllus influenzae? Ceftriaxone
What side effect of Vancomycin is a result of histamine release caused by rapid infusion? Flushing (red man syndrome) and shock
What drug has dose-related otoxicity that can occur in patients with renal failure? Vancomycin
They bind to the 30s ribosomal subunit thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and dimishing the accuracy of translation of the genetic code? Aminoglycosides
The side effects of this drug is nephrotoxicity, otoxicity and neuromuscular toxicity? Aminoglycosides
These drugs are synergistic when given together? Penicillins and aminoglycosides
This is a Penicillin that cause cell wall abnormalities that allow this aminoglycoside to gain entry into the bacteria? Gentamycin
This is the most active aminoglycoside against M. tuberculosis? Streptomycin
This drug is used orally in hepatic coma to decrease the coliform flora, thus decreasing the production of ammonia; is not significantly absorbed from GI tract, also used topically for skin infections? Neomycin
This is the most effective agent in treatment of rickettsiae, Chlamydia, and mycoplasma infections? Tetracyclines
This tetracycline is safe in renally impaired patients? Doxycycline
The side effects of these drugs is sssociated with staining of the teeth, retardation of bone growth, and photosensitivity? Tetracyclines
This drug binds to 50s ribosomal subunit thus inhibiting the translocation steps of protein synthesis; they may also interfere at other sites such as transpeptidation? Marcolides
These drug's are used in the treatment of patients with mycoplasma infections, pneumonia, leginnaires' disease, chlamydial infectons, diphtheria, and pertussis? Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin
This drug is associated with bone marrow depression and aplastic anemia that is usually fatal,also can cause gray baby syndrome in infants? Chloramphenicol
This drug is listed as the drug of choice for anaerobic GI infections. Use of this drug is associated with pseudomembranous colitis, because C. deficile is resistant to it? Clindamycin
What drugs are commonly used folate antagonist? Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (cortimoxazole)
They inhibit DNA gyrase, and therefore DNA synthesis? Quinolones
What is the bacterial enzyme that is responsible for unwinding and supercoiling of the DNA? DNA gyrase
These drugs have caused damage to growing cartilage in animals,and are not recommended for children? Quinolones
Was the first available of the quinolones group, and is an effective urinary tract antiseptic? Nalidaxic acid
These drugs are used to treat common urogenital, respiratory, bone and joint infections, prostatits and GI infections caused by gram negative organisms? Ciprofloxacin/Levofloxacin
This drug inhibits DNA synthesis; cidal against bacteroides, clostridium, amebiasis, giardiasis, trichmonas etc? Metronidazole
Drug of choice for trichomoniasis as well intestinal infections with giardia lambia and Entameba histolytica; also drug choice for antiobiotic-assoicated enterocolitis espscially when caused by C. deficille? Metronidazole
These are first line tuberculosis drugs? Isoniazid, Pyrazinzmide, Rifampin, Ethambutol, Streptomycin
Second line tuberculosis drugs? Aminosalicyclic Acid, Capreomycin, Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Kanamycin, Quinoloned, Rifabutin, Viomycin, Rifapentine
This drug inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids, associated with hepatotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy it's usually prescribed with Vitamin B6 to prevent complications like peripheral neuritis? Isoniazid
what drugs is metabolized in the liver and is potent inducer of cytochrome P-450 enzymes? Rifampin
This drug can cause retrobulbar optic neuritis, often administered concurrently with other antitubercular drugs to retard the development of drug resistance? Ethambutol
This drug is a structural analogue of para-aminobenzote acid (PABA) and is competitive inhibitor of folic acid synthesis and is the mainstay of the treatment of leprosy? Dapsone
This drug is an active anti-leprosy drug as well as an anti TB drug? Rifampin
What is the mechanism of Amphotericin B in treating disseminated yeast and fungal infections (particularly in immunocomprimised patients)? It Works by binding to ergosterol, the principal fungal membrane sterol, the most serious and most common toxicity is nephrotox
These drugs are used orally to treat chronic candiasis infections of GI tract and oral cavity? Fluconazole/Ketoconazole
Administerd as an oral agent this drug is used for the treatment of oral candiasis? Nystatin
Drug of choice for treating superficial fungal infections; given PO? Terbinafine
This anti-viral drug is most likely to be responsible for nephrotoxicity? Amphotericin B
It prevents complications like peripheral neuritis? Vitamin B6
Which of the following antitubercular drugs induces cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver? Rifampin
This group of drugs can cause otoxicity invovling both diviions of 8th cranial nerve thereby causing hearing loss as well as vertigo and loss of balance? Aminoglycosides
This antimicrobial agent is primarily administered topically? Polymyxin B
This antitubercular drug can cause retrobulbar optic neuritis? Ethambutol
What drug is reserved for the infections with penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus? Nafcillin
The use of chloramphenicol may result in? Aplastic anemia
The drug of choice for the treatment of trichomoniasis? Metronidazole
This drug is effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Piperacillin
For the treatment of Legionella pneumonia, the drug of choice would be? Erythromycin
The side effect of these drugs is staining of the teeth, and is not recommended for pregnant women? Tetracyclines
Created by: mswilsonlmt