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BMS 302- Unit 2

gluconeogenesis is synthetic, during fasting state
what cells need glucose? adipose, muscle, most other
what cells DONT need glucose? liver, nervous
what cells detect increases or decreases in blood glucose? beta
metabolic processes that require insulin glycogenesis, lipogenesis
glucagon is released from alpha cells
glucose can be found in urine if blood glucose is larger than 180 mg %
epinephrine is released from medullary cells of the adrenal gland
insulin shock can be treated with glucose or glucagon injections
how often should you be screened for diabetes? every 3 years after 45
blood glucose measured in mg%, mg/dL, mg/100mL
four components of refractive system vitreous humor, aqueous humor, lens, cornea
what component of refractive system can change as needed? lens
convex converging, positive dipoter, hyperopia (farsighted), long focal length, weak refraction
concave diverging, negative dipopter, myopia (nearsighted), short focal length, strong refraction
dipoters 1/meters
normal refractive power and focal length 59, 17
3 near response reflexes accommodation, pupillary, convergence
accommodation does what to refraction increase
In the accommodation reflex, the ciliary muscle _______, which ______ the tension on the suspensory ligaments, and _____ the refractive power of the lens. contracts, decreases, increases
NS of ciliary muscle PANS (increased=contraction)
type of muscle of ciliary multi-unit smooth
atropine (cholinergic antagonist) with ciliary muscle block contraction, keeps lens flat
near point ___ with age increases
NS of pupillary dilation SANS
muscle type in iris multi-unit smooth
spherical lens focuses light in all axes
cylindrical lens focuses light in one axis
the ___ between a hard lens and a cornea with an irregular surface helps correct the refractive defects tear layer
o blood universal donor
ab blood universal recipient
transfusion reaction result of immune complexes formed
packed cells cells only, no plasma
naturally occurring antibodies natural exposure; form naturally
caucasian Rh 85% positive
african Rh 100% positive
asian Rh 95% positive
whole blood formed elements and plasma
serum plasma with fibrinogen removed (cells allowed to clot)
buffy coat white cells and platelets
plasma liquid fraction of blood with anti-coagulant added
formed elements red cells, white cells, platelets
coagulation blood clotting
agglutination interaction between antigens and antibodies that results in clumping
three rules of blood typing 1) antigens on cell, antibodies in plasma/serum 2) agglutination only antigen+antibody 3) antigens on cell determine blood type
functional syncytium mass of cells that function as one
pacemaker cell cells capable of spontaneously depolarizing
ectopic pacemaker pacemaker cell out of expected site
isoelectric line baseline for ECG
intercalated disk gap junction
fibrotendonous rings insulation
slow response action potentials SA, AV, ectopic
fast response action potentials bundle of his, bundle branches, purkinje, atrial, ventricular
prepotential of slow response Na+ & Ca2+ in slowly, K+ reduced permeability
depolarization of slow response Ca2+ in rapidly
repolarization of slow response K+ out rapidly
depolarization of fast response Na+ in rapidly
plateau of slow response K+ out slowly, Ca2+ in slowly
SA compared to AV steeper and faster
ECG is a recording of electrical impulse, sum of electrical activity over time
P wave atrial depolarization
QRS complex ventricular depolarization (and atrial repolarization)
T wave ventricular repolarization
leads counterclockwise starting from 1 at top
lead II electrodes neg= right arm, pos= left leg
einthoven's law lead 2= lead 1 + lead 3
increased P duration damaged atrial cells (ischema)
increased PR interval interference in conduction between SA and purkinje
increased QRS non-simultaneous activation of ventricals
left mean electrical axis deviation hypertension, obesity, tumor, pregnancy, left hypertrophy
right mean electrical axis deviation right hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension
av block prolonged QR interval
bundle branch block prolonged QRS complex
polydypsia excessive thirst
poyuria frequent urination
Created by: melaniebeale



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