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Chapter 3

TermDefinition
organic compound a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
functional group a portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
monomer a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
polymer a large molecule that is formed by five monomers, or small units
macromolecule a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
condensation reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
hydrolysis a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and salt to create an acid or a base
adenosine triphospate
carbohydrate any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things.
monosaccharide a simple sugar that is the basic subunit, or monomer, of a carbohydrate
disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharaides
polysaccharide one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharide include starch, cellulose, and glycogen
protein an organic compound that is made up of one or more chains of amino acid s and that is a principal component of any cell
amino acid an organic molecule that contains carboxyl and an amino group and makes up proteins; protein monomer
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between carboxyl group of one amino group of amino acid
polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
enzyme a type of protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions of plants and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
active site site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acids molecules and one glycerol molecule
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological attached
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genic information
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the material that contains information that determines inherited characteristics
ribonucleic acid (RNA) a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a sub-unit that consists of sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
Created by: HustingE17