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Affix Prefixes and Suffixes
Academic Vocabulary Words used in academic dialogue and text. It refers to words that are not necessarily common or frequently used in every day conversations.
Accuracy (part of fluency) Reading words in text with no errors.
Alliteration The repetition of the initial phoneme of each word in connected text. Harry the happy hippo hula-hoops.
Alphabetic Principle The knowledge and understanding that the speech sounds of language have systematic and predictable relationships with letters of the alphabet and letter combinations.
Anecdotal Records Narrative descriptions that educators use to document a significant incident, observation, or behavior they have observed.
Anticipatory Set The brief beginning portion of a lesson given to get the students’ attention, activate prior knowledge, and prepare them for learning.
Automaticity Reading without conscious effort or attention to decoding.
Base Word Words that can always stand alone in English. These words have meaning on their own. (cycle is a full English word, but can be added to- “bicycle, cyclist.”
Blending The task of joining speech sounds together to accurately represent a word.
Close Reading An intensive analysis of a text in order to come to terms with what it says, how it says it, and what it means. (Timothy Shanahan)
Cloze procedure An activity in which words are omitted from a passage and students are required to fill in the blanks.
Cognates A word that comes from the same origin as a word from another language. Cognates between languages usually have similarities in spelling, pronunciation, and meaning.
Concepts About Print An essential foundation for the development of reading that refers to the awareness of how print works. It includes book orientation, directionality of print, distinction between sentences, words, and letters.
Consonant Blend Two or more consecutive consonants which retain their individual sounds (e.g., /bl/ in block; /str/ in string).
Consonant Digraph Two consecutive consonants that represent one phoneme, or sound (e.g., /ch/, /sh/).
Constructivism Students are actively involved in learning, constructing their own understanding rather than having it delivered or transmitted to them.
Context Clue Using words or sentences around an unfamiliar word to help clarify its meaning.
Cross Checking Using all three cueing systems (graphophonic, semantic, and syntactic) to determine an unknown word.
Decodable Text Text in which a high proportion of words (80%-90%) comprise sound-symbol relationships that have already been taught
Decontextualized text Abstract language that is removed from the here and now.
Differentiated Instruction Matching instruction to meet the different needs of learners in a given classroom.
Diphthongs A sound formed by the combination of two vowels in a single syllable, in which the sound begins as one vowel and moves toward another (as in coin, loud, and side).
Direct Instruction The teacher defines and teaches a concept, guides students through its application, and arranges for extended guided practice until mastery is achieved.
Elkonin Boxes A framework used during phonemic awareness instruction. Elkonin Boxes are sometimes referred to as Sound Boxes. When working with words, the teacher can draw one box per sound for a target word.
Etymology The origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning.
Explicit Instruction Explicit instruction involves direct explanation.
Expository Text Reports factual information (also referred to as informational text) and the relationships among ideas
Five Components of Reading Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
Formative Assessment Used to monitor student learning and provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning.
Fluency The ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression. Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Fluency is composed of three main components: rate, accuracy, and prosody.
Frustrational Reading Level The level at which a reader reads at less than a 90% accuracy.
Grapheme A letter or letter combination that spells a phoneme; can be one, two, three, or four letters in English (e.g., e, ei, igh, eigh).
Created by: cristinarocha
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