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RICA Vocab

vocabulary from RICA test

TermDefinition
academic vocabulary words used in textbooks and tests; broken into technical (related to specific disciplines) and non-technical (used across disciplines)
alliteration repeated use of a phoneme
alphabetic principle states that speech sounds are represented by letters
analogy phonics teaching style; show 2 words with rimes that match then introduce new onsets
analytic phonics using a whole-to-part system of teaching; start with sentences then look at words, end with the sound-symbol relationship you wish to focus on
assonance alliteration of vowels; used in poetry and easy reader books
auditory modality of language another term for listening and speaking; often method of instruction used for students with visual impairments or visual processing disorders
automaticity swift and accurate identification of words
background knowledge what you know about a specific topic
ballad form of poetry; tells a story, usually set to music
bound morphemes must be attached to a root word
breve short vowel sound
CAP (Concepts About Print) includes orientation, directionality and letter/word concepts
choral reading students read aloud together, and/or with the teacher
closed syllable syllable ending in a consonant
cognates words that have similar structure and meaning between two languages; often used to assist EL students in comprehending vocabulary
collaborative books method of reinforcing language and print concepts; each child makes a page in a book that covers a specific topic/theme in class
concepts of/about print understanding that print conveys meaning and is used for a variety of purposes
consolidated alphabetic stage stage of decoding; students in this stage read fluently at their level, also known as the orthographic stage
consonance alliteration of consonants; used in poetry
consonants speech sound made by the position of the tongue and/or lips, not dependent on air flow from the lungs
consonant blends 2 consonants together that are sounded in a smooth combination of both letter sounds
consonant digraphs 2 consonants together that do not sound like either letter; ex: ch, sh, ph
couplet pair of lines with the same rhyme and intrinsic patter (meter), found in poetry
conventional stage stage of writing when most words are written correctly; follows transitional stage of writing
decodable text easier, more predictable texts; often use rhyme
decoding process of recognizing and interpreting words
derivational relations spelling stage 4th grade to adult; use root work knowledge to create many different variations of words
dipthong vowel combinations that glide from one sound to the next
dramatic irony when the audience knows something the characters do not
echo reading teacher reads a word or sentence, students repeat
embedded phonics incidental teaching strategy using other instructional focuses to "notice" parts of words in the reading
emergent stage 2-5 years old; not yet reading or spelling, pre-phonetic scribbles
emergent literacy term coined by Marie Clay; perspective on how children learn to read and write, including experiences, cultural and social aspects of language learning
environmental print logos that are easily recognizable to children, but do not require them to "read" to know what the logo says
epic form of poetry; long poem that tells a story, usually with a hero
etymology language origin; ex: Latin or Greek origins
evaluative comprehension ability of the reader to make judgements about what they have read
fantasies genre of writing; based in reality, includes science fiction and often deals with good vs. evil
fluency reading at an appropriate pace with appropriate intonation
folklore fables, folktales and myths; characters are usually animals and a moral is presented at the end of the story
foreshadowing literary device; author drops hints about what happens later in the story
free morphemes unit of writing that stands alone with meaning
friendly explanation of words explanations at the child's comprehension level, not necessarily definition based
frustration level of instruction this level of instruction is too difficult for students to grasp concepts and retain taught information
full alphabetic stage third stage of reading and writing; identify and sound out each letter in the word individually; reading is choppy
grand conversation discussing reading with group; teacher asks deeper level questions, children apply personal experience, use inference, identify vocabulary and word structure
grapheme written english letters that represent sounds ; not a one-to-one correspondence
high frequency words most common english words used in writing, children are taught to read and write these words first (along with sight words); 50% of all reading texts made of same 100 words
homonyms words that are spelled the same but have different meaning
homophones words that sound the same but are spelled differently
hyperbole an exaggerated comparison (scared to death)
independent level of instruction level of instruction that student can read accurately and comprehend information taught
inferential comprehension second level of comprehension ; reader is able to interpret what they read
inferential thinking combining what you "know" with what you read to form a conclusion or deeper meaning
inflected suffix letters added to the end of the word that do not change the words part of speech; ex: ed, er, ing, est
instructional level of instruction optimal zone for teaching, students use but confuse much of the information, but can progress through without extreme frustration or boredom
interactive writing shared pen, children create narrative, teacher guides writing
intermediate and advanced readers fluent readers and writers, variety of reading and writing styles, success and comprehension is related to familiarity and experience with subject discussed
irony incongruity between what a character does and says
LEA (Language Experience Approach) based on children's language and experiences, during the letter-name alphabetic stage (5-8 yrs old) formally taught letter-sound relationships
literal comprehension first level of comprehension, ability of the reader to understand the surface meaning of a text; "answers are in the book"
literary analysis process of studying or analyzing a story
literary criticism one possible outcome of literary analysis; students make judgements or evaluations of the story focusing on literary elements
lyric form of poetry, expresses personal feelings, often found in music
macron long vowel sound
Matthew Effect "poor get poorer, rich get richer", as children get older the gap between struggling readers and proficient readers widens
metaphor implied comparison
morpheme most elemental unit of meaning; 2 types: some words and all affixes
morpheme analysis structural analysis of a word; how word elements combine (root+affix)
myth attempts to explain natural phenomena; includes legends and tall tales, ex: Robin Hood
onset initial consonant or consonant blend
onomatopoeia words that sound like the action they represent (when spoken) ex: screech, whoosh, plink
open syllable syllable that ends with a vowel
orthographic knowledge what a person knows about how to spell words
orthography synonymous with spelling patterns
orthology study of spelling patterns in written language
partial alphabetic stage stage of reading, use wrong word when reading based off letters student does know; ex: identifying cake as candy
personification giving human traits to nonhuman things; figurative language
phoneme the smallest unit of sound
phonemic awareness ability to distinguish the separate phonemes of a word
phonetic alphabet one to one correspondence between the phoneme and symbol
phonetic stage all phonemes have a grapheme
phonics linking letters to sound relationships
phonograms rimes that have the same spelling (word families) ex: bat, hat, cat, rat
phonological awareness ability to notice and manipulate the sounds of a spoken language
phonology sound in speech
phrase cued reading marked text with slashes between phrases for student practice in fluency
pragmatics the rules of language used in social contexts; gathering information, requesting and communicating, staying on topic, turn taking
pre-communicative stage student has no alphabetic principle, use pictures or scribbles to denote meaning
predictable text easily decodable text, often uses rhyme and pictures that show story line
prosody reading with appropriate expression, with pausing, variation in pitch and reflective of the author's purpose
QAR Question- Answer Relationships; challenges students to classify questions and verify answers, can be used to assess comprehension of all 3 levels
realistic fiction lifelike and believable stories not based on fact
rhyming using words that have the same rime sounds, often used in poetry and predictable text
rime initial vowel sound and any consonants that follow (in a single syllable)
schwa u sound as in bud
segmentation breaking down words into individual sounds
semantics meaning conveyed by words
shared reading teacher demonstrates concepts, points out letters words, and punctuation, models strategies, asks questions to further guide thinking and comprehension
semiphonetic stage uses some letters but incorrectly, some sounds not represented
sight words words that are not easily decodable and do not follow regular spelling patterns
sonnet 14 lines of poetry, with rhyming string and strict meter
SQ3R tool for in depth reading skills; Survey - Question - Read - Recite- Review
structural analysis process of recognizing words by analyzing affixes and bases
syllabic analysis process of recognizing words by analyzing syllables
syllables and affix stage upper elementary and middle school; inflectional endings and double consonant at syllable juncture learned
symbolism operates on two levels of meaning - literal and symbolic
simile comparison between two objects using "like" or "as"
syntax the rules that govern how sentences are put together
synthetic phonics using a part-to-whole teaching strategy, start with symbol (letter), state sound, build words around sound
transitional reader read fluently at their level; aka: consolidated alphabetic stage
transitional stage phonetic spelling but more correct than incorrect
verbal irony when someone says something that is not consistent with reality
visual modality of language signing, reading and writing
vocabulary the words in a given language; each person has 5 vocabularies: listening, speaking, sight, writing and meaning
vowel sounds made when the air leaving the lungs is vibrated through the vocal chords
within word pattern spelling stage 1st-4th grade (7-10yrs old) usually begins as students transition to independent reading, can read and spell many words correctly
word identification ability to read aloud or decode, independent of meaning
word recognition to know the meaning of a word
zone of proximal development zone of understanding
Created by: ricatestprep