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Phys Exam 3: Ch 35

Blood Groups

QuestionAnswer
What is the term for markers on the surface of RBCs that are protein and CHO complexes? Antigenic groups
What is the most important blood group for transfusion compatibility? ABO blood group
What is Rh factor? A surface protein on blood cells, prominent in mother-fetus interactions
Who developed the ABO blood typing system Karl Landsteiner
Describe to antigenic marker on Type A, Type B, Type O, and Type AB blood groups Type A - N-acetyl-galactosamine; Type B - galactose at the same position; Type O - has neither; Type AP - has both
What is an agglutinogen? Antigen
What is an agglutinin? Antibody
What is the genotype of Blood type O, what is the agglutinogens it produces, and what is the agglutinins that it produces? Genotype = OO; Agglutinogen = cannot make either; Aggllutinins = Anti-A & Anti-B
What is the genotype of Blood type A, what is the agglutinogens it produces, and what is the agglutinins that it produces? Genotype = OA or AA; Agglutinogen = A; Aggllutinins = Anti-B
What is the genotype of Blood type B, what is the agglutinogens it produces, and what is the agglutinins that it produces? Genotype = OB or BB; Agglutinogen = B; Aggllutinins = Anti-A
What is the genotype of Blood type AB, what is the agglutinogens it produces, and what is the agglutinins that it produces? Genotype = AB; Agglutinogen = A & B; Aggllutinins = cannot make either
What is an acute transfusion rxn? If a person has previously been exposed to that blood antigen (shared needles or blood, viral transmission, ingestion of blood), ABs bind to the transfused RBC, activate the complement onto the RBC contents, cause lysis and release of RBC contents
What can an acute transfusion rxn cause? Hemolytic anemia, due to lysis of RBCs
What is Rh factor? Rh is another RBC antigen; there are 6 types, but D is the most common AND the most antigenic. People w/Rh factor is Rh+, people w/o Rh factor are Rh-
What is Erythrobastosis fetalis? Hemolytic disease of the newborn; Rh factor disease
Describe Erythroblastosis fetalis Disease of the fetus & newborn. Causes agglutination of fetal RBCs. Mom is Rh-, Dad is Rh+ - if baby gets Rh+ from Dad, the baby has protein that is non-self antigen to mom
What is the MOA of Erythroblastosis fetalis? Some of baby's RBCs leak thru placenta into mom. Mom develops ABs to non-self antigen, some leak back across placenta to fetus and agglutinate fetal RBCs.
What happens when fetal RBCs agglutinate? Agglutinated cells are destroyed, releasing Hb, converts Hb to bilirubin. Fetus becomes severely anemic and jaundiced. Bilirubin deposits into and damages nervous tissue.
How can we prevent Erythroblastosis fetalis? Injection of anti-Rh AB (RhoGam) into Rh- mom, starting in late pregnancy. AB binds to Rh antigens that leak from fetus, eliminating/reducing the immune stimulus to Mom. Her immune response (memory cells) builds up with each pregnancy.
What happens if Mom is Rh+ and Dad is Rh-? Nothing! Everything is good.
Created by: hclark86