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Diseases and process

Ascite Excessive fluid in the peritoneal cavity which is in the abdominal cavity that separates the organs
Clostridium Difficile (C-diff)- A bacterium in your digestive tract that release toxins that attack lining of intestines (wash hands with soap and water frequently) S/S: Watery diarrhea up to 15 times a day,Severe abdominal pain,loss of appetite,fever,blood or pus in the stool, weight loss.
(SLE) Systemic Lupus Erythematous - (cause is unknown)body immune system attacks your own tissues and organs and can effect your joints,skin,kidneys,blood cells,brain,heart and lungs. (avoid sunlight and cold environments) (more common in women) S/S: Fatigue and fever,joint pain and stiffness,butterfly shaped rash on cheeks,skin lesions that worst with sun exposure,fingers and toes that turn white or blue in cold, (treated with Corticoid steroids)
Diuresis excessive excretion of urination
Guillain-Barre' syndrome-body immune syndrome attacks your nerves. Causing weakness,numbness or paralysis. S/S: Weakness and tingling in your extremities first sign (can quickly lead to paralyzed body),weakness,paralysis
Echymosis the passage of blood from ruptured blood vessels in subcutaneous tissue,marked by a purple discoloration of the skin
Coronary obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-lung disease that makes it hard to breathe,which gets worse over time. (usually get COPD in 60's)(usually from ppl that smoke,advise pt to quit) S/S: long lasting chronic cough,mucus that comes up when you cough, SOB that gets worse when you exercise or doing simple things,avoid cold and dry air,take breaks during day,
Meningitis-Inflammation of the meninges (covering of brain/spinal cord)Headache and Nuchal rigidity (stiff neck) respiratory isolation until pathogen can no longer be cultured (they do a lumbar puncture also checking CSF) S/S: Positive Kernings (dx sign of meningitis supine pt cant straighten leg after flexion of knees-lower back) Positive BRUDZINSKI(involuntary flexion of arm,hip and knee when neck is passively flexed) Need corticosteroid (dexamethasone)give IV lower ICP
(DLE) Discoid Lupus Erythematous-Body attacking ones own immune system incorrectly attacking normal skin,sun and smoking may bring lesions out. a skin biopsy need to be done to confirm the diagnosis (treated with cortisone injections)
Cushing disease- (thyroid issue) when body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. S/S: A fatty hump between your shoulders(weight gain due to fatty tissue diposits),rounded face(moon face),pink or purple stretch marks on your skin,can also result in htn,dm and sometimes bone loss
Crohns Disease-chronic inflammatory disease of the digestive tract and can become ulcerated. S/S: abdominal pain,diarrhea (sometimes bloody),weight loss
atropine should not be used for open angle glaucoma for it increases intraocular pressure
Dumping Syndrome- more than likely come from gastric surgery. abdominal cramps,nausea,diarrhea
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. its tougher to treat than most staph because it is resistant to some commonly used antibiotics.MRSA is spread by contact S/S: most often it causes mild infections on the skin,like sores or boils,but can also cause infections in surgical wounds,bloodstream,the lungs,or the urinary tract
Transurethral resection the prostate (TURP)-prostate surgery done to relieve moderate to severe urinary symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate resectoscope is inserted through the tip of your penis into the tube that carries urine from your bladder (urethra) Urethra is surrounded by the prostate using the resectoscope trimming it away to remove blockage so you can urinate properly.
Atrial fibrillation (A-fib)- the atria the smaller chambers that normally pump blood into the larger ventricles--quiver rapidly and erratically causing atria not to squeeze blood effectively in the ventricles (heart misfiring)(risk for blood clots) S/S: Heart palpations,chest pains,pressure,discomfort,abdominal pain,SOB,fatigue or lack of energy (can lead to CVA or HF)
Diabetes Mellitus (DM)-insulin dependent or lack of production S/S: frequent infections,cuts,bruises,taking awhile to heal,losing or gaining weight without trying. (monitor glucose level 80-110)
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)-heart pumps blood weaker than normal. Body doesn't get proper nutrients and oxygen some organs retain fluids S/S: congested lungs,dizziness,weakness,rapid or irregular breaths (monitor weight and watch diet) TX:ace inhibitors,Beta-blockers,Diuretics
Cardiomyopathy-similar to CHF but this disease enlarges your heart muscle which makes it hard to pump blood and can lead to heart failure. S/S: Breathlessness with exertion or even at rest, swelling of the legs,ankles and feet,fatigue,bloating of abdomen due to fluid build up,dizziness,irregular heartbeats.
Hypokalemia- Low potassium levels S/S: abnormal heart rhythms,constipation,fatigue,muscle damage,
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-a condition in which the stomach contents(food or liquid) leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus,this action can irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms S/S: heartburn, feeling of food stuck in chest,nausea after eating,(don't lay pt down for 2-3 hrs after meals)
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)(stroke)-damage to the brain caused by a disruption of the blood supply to a part of the brain S/S: numbness or weakness of the face,arm or leg, confusion,trouble speaking or understanding,trouble seeing, trouble walking,dizziness or severe H/A with no known cause. (make pt smile,say complete sentence,and raise both arms)
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)-fat deposits called plaque build up inside coronary arteries,reducing the amt of blood that gets to your heart, leading to serious problems such as heart attacks S/S: chest pains,SOB,heart attacks,(give statins,beta blockers,ASA,Nitrates)
pneumonia-respiratory condition where you have an infection in the lungs (usually have fluids in your lungs which is sputum that you cough up) S/S: cough,fever,shaking chills,SOB,confusion,H/A,loss of appetite
Gout-is a kind of arthritis. It can cause an attack of sudden burning pain, stiffness, and swelling in a joint, usually a BIG TOE. to much uric acid in the blood which form hard crystals in your joints. (most common in men) S/S: nighttime attack of swelling, tenderness, redness, and sharp pain in your big toe. (can get attacks in your foot,ankle,or knees)
Pursed Lip Breathing-improves ventilation by releasing trapped air in lungs should be done during different part of activity, bending,lifting, climbing stairs, inhale through nose exhale through pursed lips
Tuberculosis (TB)-a contagious bacterial disease that primarily involves the lungs,tuberculosis may develop after inhaling droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze of someone infected. S/S: Fever,weight loss and weakness,productive cough,chills and nights sweat (The tb infection doesn't mean you have the disease means you been exposed,a positive test results in a x-ray an tx can take up to 18 mos with rest,therapy,good hygiene,nutrution
Acute Glomerulonephritis- most common is preceded by an upper respiratory tract streptococcal infection S/S: HEMATURIA*,HTN,edema,most often in school age in kids (TEA COLORED OR SMOKE COLORED URINE) last up to 2wks bed rest until HEMATURIA is resolved (penicillin tx)
Renal failure-interference with ability to filter blood,decrease in blood flow to the kidney S/S: anorexia,nausea,vomiting,edema,dry mucous membrane,urine output less than 400 mL/24 hrs (diet high in calories,restricted proteins,potassium,and sodium)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-this is fluid taken out of the spinal column during a lumbar puncture NPO,Sedative may be given,Lateral recumbent position with knees drawn up to abdomen and chin onto chest
Increased Cranial Pressure (ICP)-normal pressure is 0-20 mm Hg***, (increased B/P,decreased pulse,decreased respirations) Higher the ICP the less O2 an nutrients to the brain S/S: change in LOC (agitation),Lethargy to coma (from increased pressure),pupil dilation--unequal--goes from sluggish to fixed and dilated--coma--MUST CATCH EARLY,changes in motor function
Shock S/S: decreased B/P, increased pulse, increased respirations
Reye's Syndrome a disorder defined as toxic,nonspecific encephalopathy with other organs involved,rapidly progresses to a critical illness and sometimes leads to death usually follows viral infections from ASA/salicylates in children
Encephalitis-inflammation of the brain caused by virus from mosquitoes and Herpes simplex,west nile,shingles, (disease similar to meningitis) S/S: nuchal rigidity,H/A,confusion and agaitation (diuretics=mannitol)
Parkinson-a brain disorder that occurs when certain nerve cells (neurons) die or become impaired (these are the cells that produce DOPAMINE which allows smooth coordinated function of the body muscles and movement) S/S: facial expressions don't move much,pt leans forward while walking (instruct pts not to look at their feet),*risk for choking*,urinary retention bowel an bladder problems may develop, be patient do not rush pts let them take their time
Mutiple Sclerosis (MS)-degeneration of myelin sheath (primarily young adults 20-40) S/S: nystagmus (twitching eyes back and fourth),Ataxia (impaired coordination)
Myasthenia Gravis-poor nerve impulse transmission at synapse because of **decreased acetylcholine at synapse**(acetylcholine is widely distributed in body tissue,so effects vary greatly,depending on location of deficiency S/S: decrease muscle movement(safety),decreasing chewing swallowing nutrion aspiration,**ptosis/lid lag (CLASSIC SIGN EYELID LAG),diplopia & fatigue (double vision)
Bells palsy-acute facial paralysis (7th cranial nerve) usually unilateral,thoughts to be an autoimmune trigger S/S: pain behind ear with "drawing sensation",paralysis -one side of face***,eyelid wont close,taste impaired or lost,drooling on one side
Amyoltropic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrigs)-a rapid,progressive degeneration of corticospinal tracts,so MOTOR neurons are destroyed (ALL cognitive skills remain intact,as CNS is ok,as is sensory tract,so can feel pain ect) S/S: weakness an muscle spasticity,difficulty swallowing/speaking,eventual respiratory arrest and complex from nerve paralysis
Created by: Danzel
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