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Phys Exam 3: Ch 33

Leukocytes & Inflammation

Name the cells that are considered phagocytic granulocytes, from most common to least common PMNs (40-75%), Eosinophils (1-6%), Basophils (<1%)
What is the non-granular phagocytic cell, and what portion of the cells do they comprise? Monocytes, 2-10%
What do monocytes differentiate into? Macrophages
What are the non-phagocytic cells, and what portion of the cells to they comprise? Lymphocytes - B- and T-cells, 20-50%
What is the lifespan of a granulocyte in circulation and in the tissues? a few hours in circulation, a few days in tissues
What is the lifespan of a monocyte in circulation and in the tissues? a few days in circulation, months-years in tissues as macrophages
What is the lifespan of a lymphocytes in circulation and in the tissues? weeks to months in circulation, cycling b/n tissue & lymph nodes
What are the 3 types of cell movement? Ameboid motion, chemotaxis, diapedesis
Define chemotaxis Movement along a gradient of a chemical
Define diapedesis Movement thru the blood vessel wall
What types of structures can cells phagocytose? Tissue debris & non-self material, cell surface markers - continually replaced, antibodies & complement proteins (opsonization)
What are 3 specialized organelles? Phagosome, lysosome, peroxisome
What is a phagosome? vesicle enclosed by ophagocytosis
What is a lysosome? A vesicle that contains proteases & lipases for digestion
What is a peroxisome? A vesicle that contains free radicals: OH, O2-, H2O2
What are the cellular components that comprise the reticulo-endothelial system? monocytes - in plasma, macrophages - some in plasma, most in tissue
What is the action of histamine? Vasodilation of local blood vessels!
What is the infection route of the reticulo-endothelial system? Body surface --> tissues --> lymph nodes
What is the response of the reticulo-endothelial system to an infection? When a macrophage encounters a pathogen, the macrophage migrates into lymph node, then if pathogen is washed into the lymph node, the node is full of macrophages that will react to the pathogen
Besides the lymph system, where are some other types of macrophages located? fill the meshwork w/in the spleen; Kuppfer cells - line the liver sinusoids; alveolar macrophages; microglia in the brain
What is the general structure of flow of lymph through a lymph node? Lymph filtrate enters from several small lymph ducts, passes closely thru & around a maze of lymphocytes, and leaves thru a larger efferent lymph duct
What chemical vasodilator do injured tissue cells release to trigger the inflammatory response? Histamine
Describe what happens to the area of injury during the inflammatory response Vasodilation causes inc local flow to the tissue, pores b/n ECs enlarge, causing inc space b/n cells, allowing for increased fluid flow into the interstitial space. The increased fluid in the interstitial space will eventually move into the lymph system.
Why would the body want an increase in fluid flowing into the interstitial space around the site of injury during an inflammatory response? Fluid flow allows clotting proteins to the injury site, which wall off the area, increasing flow into the lymph system. It also allows more PMNs to the injury site
What are some classic signs of inflammation? Heat, swelling, redness, pain (Latin: calor, tumor, rubor, dolor)
Describe the leukocyte response during inflammation Macrophages become activated, attack the pathogen, release cytokines; PMNs & monocytes move from plasma --> injury site; monocytes differentiate into macrophages; PMNs & monocytes are released from the BM; More PMNs & monocytes are produced by the BM
What is TNF-alpha? A cytokine secreted by activated macrophages
What are the local effects caused by TNF-alpha? 1. Is a vasolilator - dilates blood vessels & enlarges pores; 2. Inc PMN attachment to vessel walls via surface proteins --> inc PMN presence; 3. Activates blood clotting via release of Tissue Factor
What are the systemic effects caused by TNF-alpha? 1. Inc PMN release from BM; 2. Activates hypothalamus to generate a fever; 3. Inc liver production of C-reactive protein, which activates the complement protein
What is the fxn of Complement protein? Mark bacteria for phagocytosis
What happens if there is excessive amounts of TNF-alpha in the blood? Septic shock - systemic bacterial infection and systemic release of cytokines
What is the fxn of eosinophils? Specialized to attack parasites
How do eosinophils carry out their fxn? They attach to roundworm/flatworm and release the contents of the granules
What do eosinophilic granules contain? Protease, lipase, RNAase, free radicals, H2O2, Major Basic Protein (a toxic peptide)
What is the fxn of the proteases, lipases, and RNAases within the eosinophilic granules? For cutting thru the plasma membrane & cytoplasm
Eosinophilic granules are modified versions of what structureS? Lysosomes, peroxisomes
Describe the fxn of Major Basic Protein 1. Forms pores in parasite membranes, causing the contents to leak out and are digested; 2. MBP binds complement protein, marking the parasite for phagocytosis
Created by: hclark86



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