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OTA 117 Midterm

QuestionAnswer
OT code of ethics 7 principles (Very bored people dance around flipping naked veracity beneficence procedural justice duty autonomy fidelity nonmaleficence
7 core values and attitudes of OT practice (anybody even frank john david paul tom) autruism equality freedom justice dignity prudence truthfullness
behavioral treatment program steps (i bet counting really sucks in europe) indentify baseline counting/reporting reinforcement schedule intervention evaluate
defense mechanisms (i really don't care people) idealization rationalization denial conversion projection
social skills training (mom doesn't play fair) motivation demonstration practice feedback
NSPOT national society for promoting of occupational therapy founded 1970 .. now called AOTA
mental health disorder impairement of one or more ares of function
occupation human goal directed use of time interest energy and attention
what is mental health state of being, relative rather than absolutes
negative cycle those who fail to act become less likely to be able to unhappiness and inactivity reinforce each other
moral treatment pinel and tukes based on respect and belief that the mentally would benefit most from daily routine graded to the individual
MOHO Model of Human Occupation all human responses to the environment are formed from continuous interdependent interaction Volition Movement Habituations Roles Performance Skills
NAMI National Alliance on Mental Heath helped reduce stigma with mental health advocate for housing, community care, supported employment
Florence Clark developed occupational science
ADA American with Diabilities 1980 law mandates that qualified people not be excluded from employment and work activities
theroy of object relations Freud Relationship with objection physical, non physical ways to relate to others
Neuroscience Theory our minds and emotions are explained as a series of complex biochemical and electrical activity occurring in the brain
Psychiatric rehabilitation atheoretial, eclectic rehabilitation approach NOT a treatment theory
ORG Overall Rehabilitation Goal - agreement between the client and practitioner about the environment and roles the client would like to to occupy where the pt lives
Rehabilitation Diagnosis a process to identify the patients ORG
Rehabilitation planning a process that identifies and prescribes high priority skills and resources specified in the rehab plan
2 Main areas of intervention Catagoriws Developmental of function skills: modification of the environment to maximize functional use of skills Criteria for acceptance of therapy: rehabilitation readiness and interest in self confidence
5 assumptions of model of psychiatric rehabilitation *adequate functioning is possible for everyone *must have needed skills & resources *skills can be developed *environment facilities success *belief & hope
Practice OT Mental Health Model like lense in colored glasses pay attention to somethings more choose theories based on clients issues, goals and personality no one theory fits all
objection relation theory critism focus: symbolic content of activities as a mirror of the clients unconscious conflicts Critique: disregards clients conscious motivation to choose and participate in activities of life
client centered theory critisms focus: all clients can choose their life path critique: a talking, not a doing therapy
developmental theory critisms focus: emphasizes social and sexual development as well as motivation skills, habit attitude critique: addresses the underlying foundations that OT is built on, but not specifics
behavioral theory criticisms focus: Learning as a consequence of external rewards critique: OT uses with developmental disables and cognitive impaired clients, change is often superficial and not permanent
Neuroscience theory criticisms focus: brain autonomy and chemistry critique: OT's contribution is limited to observation and description of function, behavior is affected by neuroscience interventions
psychiatric rehabilitation theory criticisms focus: rehabilitate clients through use of activities critique: this is OT just not credited to us
what is a practice model? a way to organize our thinking about client thinking problems in clinical practice need to know: evaluations used, treatment techniques, actions to take with the clients when using practice model
Ann Cronin Mosey development of adaptive skills model
recapitulation of ontogensis recapture of development stage by stage repeating of the clients needed developmental path focus: develop clients general skills and behaviors needed to deal with the treatment
Mosey's 6 adaptive skills *sensory integration *cognitive *dydadic interaction *group interaction *self-identity *sexual identity
adaptive skills concept summary *provides an activity environment that facilitates growth *sub skills are mastered in normal developmental order *different categories of sub skills can be worked on at the same time *self motivation must be engages to be successful
Role acquisition practice model the learning of all daily life, work, and leisure skills that enables one to develop and participate in a variety of social and productive life roles focus:help client gain skills needed to function in their occupational and social roles
role acquisition practice model is based on: behavioral and learning theory: all behavior is learned, what has been learned wrong can be fixed and what hasn't been learned can be newly learned
Social Skills training practice model: success in role performance depends in part on using competent social skills focuses on clients here and now
social skills identifiable learned behaviors that individuals use in interpersonal situations to obtain or to maintain reinforcement from their environment
value of learning social skills they help us get what we want and or need from others
What 2 ways social skills are taught grouped together behaviors grouped together general skills
various types of social skills self expression other-enhancing skills assertive skills communication skills
self expression skills how one expresses themselves to others
other-enhancing skills how to express care about others
assertive skills making requests and refusing requests
communications skills different techniques of communication to control one or quality of voice
4 phases of social Social Skills training motivation demonstration practice feedback
Social perception based on behavioral theory and consist not only on learning the appropriate behaviors, but also in perceiving when and where behaviors are appropriate
social skills training model crisicism has limited effectiveness and must be used in an environment as close to the actual one as possible
Psycho-educational approach used to train and develop skills of functional performance of everyday activities for people with mental disorders therapist can act as a case worker
Psycho-educational concepts *people with phyco ed problems are caused by their deficits in living skills *represent some degree of failure to learn *deficits can be remedied *measurements of outcomes through pre-post-test reinforces educational standards
Sensory Integration - SI Model *smooth working together of all senses needed for accurate perception and motor action *integration of 5 senses
5 SI senses sight, smell, taste, touch ,hearing
Proprioception sense that give us information about the movement and position of our body without looking at them
kinesthesis related sense that gives us information about the movement and position of our body as it changes with muscular effor
vestibular awareness sense that detects motion and the pull of gravity on our bodies during bodily movement
tactile defense sensitive to touch sensations and can be easily overwhelmed by and fearful of ordinary daily experiences and activities
chronic schizophrenia and SI - what lorna jean king hypothesis they have proprioceptive deficits, or disturbance of where their body is in space
what are typical movement problems which can appear in chronic schizophrenia *client can't tell where objects are in space *decomposition of movement *psychomotor retardation - slow movement
6 characteristic postural and movement patterns in advanced schizophrenia *S curved posture *shuffling gait *difficulty raising arms above the head *inflexible neck and shoulder joints *hand changes - weak grip, ulnar deviation, tone loss in thumb muscles
what is SI Intervention with psychiatric clients like? king demonstrated a program of gross motor, proprioceptive and vestibular stimulation activities improved clients mobility, improved spontaneous vocalization and improved emotional expression and encouraged better grooming
who is king's SI program suitable for person with chronic schizophrenia, except the paranoid type, it is also not for persons with mania
Cognitive skills ability to perceive, represent and organize sensory information for thinking and solving problems
dyadic interaction skill ability to participate in a variety of relationships involving one other person
Self identity skill ability to recongnize ones own assets and limitations and to perceive the self as worthwhile, self directed consistent and reliable
sexual idenity ability to accept ones sexual nature as natural and pleasurable and to participate in a relatively long term sexual relationship that considers the needs of both partners
discrimination ability to recognize difference in situations that call for a change in behavior
social reinforcer behaviors shown by one person to another that tend to promote the frequency of the desired behavior
ID primitive part of personality drives self-preservation and pleasure
Super Ego unconscious morals contains standards of behavior set of rules learned
Reality testing ability to tell between reality and fantasy to share same general ideas about reality
11 defense mechanisms *conversion *compensation *Denial *Idealism *Identification *rationalization *regression *Sublimation *Substitution *undoing *projection
Denial refusing to believe something that causes anxiety
projection believing that an unacceptable feeling of ones own belongs to someone else
Rationalization making excuses for unacceptable behavior or feelings
conversion conflicts turned into real physical symptoms
Regression functioning at a more primitive developmental level than previously back to immature pattern of behavior
Undoing trying to reverse the effects of what one has done by doing the opposite
idealization overestimating someone or valuing him/her more than the real personality & person to merit
Identification adopting the habits or characteristics of another person
sublimation unacceptable wishes channeled into socially acceptable activities
substitution a realistic goal or object substituted for one that cannot be achieved
Compensation efforts to make up for personal defects / this can be a conscious effort
erikson's stages of cognitive development develop through stages or a fixed sequence stress = regress developmental lag can be corrected by exposure to the situation
Erikson's 8 stages of Psychological Development birth-18mths -trust vs. mistrust / 2-4 -autonomy vs. shame/doubt / 3-5 -initiative vs. guilt / 6-12 -industry vs. inferiority /adolescence -identity vs role confusion/ young adult -intimacy vs isolation/ middle adulthood -generativity vs stagnation
behavioral theory pavlov & skinner all behavior is learned actions with pleasurable outcome will be repeated
behavior any observable action
reinforcement consequences of behavior that either encourages or discourages the repetition of the behavior
terminal behavior treatment goal behavior the person will show at the end of a successful program
shaping method of approaching the terminal behavior gradually
chaining method of teaching a complex activity step at a time
schedule of reinforcement timing of reinforcement
extinction discouraging an undesired behavior by removing any reinforcement
developmental theory pro/cons pro - concept of grading cons - many patients lag in earlier stages changing is a challenging tast
behavioral theory pro/cons pros - works will with cognitively challenged cons - criticized for treating people like machines, using unhealthy or abusive reinforcers
cognitive behavioral theory beck human behavior is based on what we think and believe cognition determines our feelings
cognitive rehersal client images doing successive steps of task to help increase performance
self monitoring client records neg conditions and associated with awareness and understanding
reattribution therapist challenges clients false neg thoughts
desensitization client is successively introduced to environment
assumption unarticulated rules by which a person orders and organizes experiences
attribution meaning attached by the person to an even either positive or negative
automatic thoughts thoughts that occur involuntary provokes by specific events or situations
cognitions thoughts both rational and irrational
cognitive distortions errors in reasoning over generalization all or nothing personalization
self talk ones personal cognition's or internal thoughts
activity schedule describe a written self-report of how a person is spending time
client centered therapy humanistic individual view of life and helping each person to find satisfaction free to choose their own course of action in their lives
mental health occurs when person is not aware of their feelings and or choices available to them
client centered therapy - common concepts *non directive *give client unconditional + regard *open invitation to talk *uses minimal responses *reflection of feelings *with holding of judgement
accurate empathy understanding feelings and actions of another person
unconditional positive reguard sense conveyed that he/she accepts likes & respects patient
non directive behavior therapist refrains from giving an opinion on anything the patient says or does
client centered therapy criticism pros: therapy takes long time, relies on client self direction & awareness cons: inappropriate for the severely mentally ill who are often non verbal
neuroscience theories assumes that normal human functioning requires an anatomically normal brain
what is the dividing line between mental health & illness for OT? function improve ability to care for ones self, work and maintain relationship
what is the human motivation to occupation everyone is born with a drive
Lorna Jean King Sensory Integration poor functioning & grossly abnormal posture in chronic schizo could be attributed to errors in sensory
Claudia Allens cognitive disabilities persons cognitive & ability to function can determine and stage by developing performance by activity
Cognitive - behavioral theories method of changing behaviors by perceiving the meaning of events differently & there by changing ones beliefs and surrounding emotions
Sensory Processing developer catano brown: provided an evaluation instrument to help identify by sensory
narrative reasoning technique help to shed light on how many people with mental illness perceived their lives and occupations through telling their story
mental healthy reasonably functioning with in a frame work of daily life ability to resolve conflicts
What effects might involvement in occupations have with mental health improve mental health by doing things themselves gives the patients life meaning and purpose
Created by: lmd807710