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Micro1 Test3a pract

Practice test of Microbiology 1, test 3. No review yet.

QuestionAnswer
Normal flora, does not normally cause infectious diseases. indigenous microbiota
Disease causing microbe. pathogen
An organism that exists harmlessly as part of the normal human body environment and does not become a health threat until the host's resistance is lowered by other diseases or drugs. opportunistic pathogen
An infection following a previous infection, especially when caused by microorganisms that have become resistant to the antibiotics used earlier. superinfection
Any place where a microbe may live and reproduce. reservoir
An organism that harbors a pathogen. carrier
The ability of a pathogen to cause disease. pathogenicity
A measure of a pathogens pathogenicity. virulence
Microbes normally associated with an animal or transmitted from one. zoonotic
The number of cases of infections/diseases. prevalence
The area of the infection's spread. point prevalence
The proportion of people in a population who have a disease or condition at a particular time period prevalence
New cases of people who never had the disease before. incidence
Having the disease. morbidity
Dying from the disease. mortality
Study of factors that contribute to disease, infectious or not. epidemiology
Progression and course of the disease. pathogensis
How the disease spreads from one host to another. transmission
A disease that can be spread from host to another but is difficult to get. communicable
A disease that is easy to spread. contagious
Disease or infections that erupt during a hospital stay or within 14 days of discharge from the hospital. nosocomial
Diseases that are normally present in a given population. endemic
Diseases normally present in a population that experience a sudden rise in the number of cases. epidemic
Multiple elevated numbers of cases in multiple countries of a disease. pandemic
Diseases controlled through good practice but that do occur sporadically. non-endemic diseases
Infections or diseases present in their incubation stage at the time of hospital admission. community-acquired infection
Infections or diseases that result from medical or surgical treatment caused by physicians, surgeons, of healthcare personnel. iatrogenic infection
Cover mouth and nose, limit visitors, no dry dusting, open to fresh air and sunlight, filter air and roll linens lightly. These prevent what kind of contamination? Airborne
Fresh food, proper temps, clean, wash hands, use water over 80C to clean with. These rules apply handling ? food and utensils
Use disposables, disinfect or sterilize ASAP, only use equipment for same patient, soiled linens go to laundry separately. These rules should be followed when handling ? fomites
The most important precaution you can apply? wash hands
Any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms and transferring them from one individual to another. fomite
Examples of infectious disease (can you give one?) Exs include: anthrax, pink eye, flu, cold, any disease caused by microorganisms
Examples of communicable disease (can you give one?) leprosy, Chlamydia, AIDS, TB, mononucleosis, chicken pox
Examples of contagious disease (can you give one?) mumps, scabies, chicken pox, flu, pink eye, TB
Examples of endemic disease (can you give one?) West Nile, gonorrhea, flu, MRSA, HIV, shingles
Examples of epidemic disease (can you give one?) measles, West Nile, malaria, chicken pox, avian flu, polio, SARS
Examples of sporadic disease (can you give one?) Malaria (in US), Legionnaires, food poisoning, tetanus
Examples of pandemic disease (can you give one?) AIDS/HIV, bird flu, hepatitis, TB, malaria
Examples of zoonotic disease (can you give one?) mad cow, bubonic plague, rabies, lyme disease, cat scratch fever, ringworm
A carrier who never had the disease is called a ? passive carrier
A carrier who has fully recovered from the disease is called a ? active carrier
A carrier who has not expressed signs or symptoms of the disease yet, but soon will, is called ? an incubatory carrier or prodromal
A carrier may no longer show signs or symptoms of a disease, but hasn't fully recovered yet, is called ? a convalescent carrier
An organism or object that carries blood can be a __ for disease. vector
Chickenpox transmitted by touching a weeping vesicle is an example of ? direct contact transmission
Chickenpox transmitted by touching a dirty wound dressing from a shingles patient is an example of ? indirect contact transmission
Chickenpox transmitted when an ER patient coughs in your face is an example of ? droplet transmission
Hepatitis A transmitted through fecally-contaminated lettuce in your taco is an example of ? indirect contact and vehicular transmission
Hepatitis C spread through an accidental needlestick on the job is an example of ? mechanical vector, vehicular, indirect contact transmission
What is the stage in a disease when pathogens are multiplying but are having no affect on the host? incubation
What is the stage in a disease when pathogens start to have an affect on the host, who starts to feel sick? prodromal
What is the stage in a disease when symptoms become full blown? period of illness
What is the period in a disease when the host starts to recover, is left with damage from the disease, or dies? convalescence
What are the 5 steps in the chain of infection? 1. reservoir 2. portal of exit from reservoir 3. mode of transmission 4. portal of entry 5. into susceptible host
Pathogens that can be suspended in the air require what kind of precautions? airborne
What kind of respirator should you wear when working with a patient for whom airborne precautions are in effect? N95
If there's a risk of splashing another person with infected fluids (by sneezing, coughing, etc), __ precautions should be in place. droplet
How far should you stay away from a person under droplet precautions? 3 feet
What kind of precautions are in effect for patients with pathogens spread by touch? contact
What are the 5 modes of transmission? 1. airborne 2. droplet 3. contact 4. vehicular/fomite 5. vector
When contact precautions are in effect, you should cover any of your body that might ? come in contact with the patient or any surface that the patient might have touched
How many REPORTED cases of nosocomial infections are there every year? 2 million
Nosocomial infections happen because a healthcare worker didn't do something they were ? supposed to do to stop the spread of infection
Who is most at risk of nosocomial infection? burn victims
What is the most common type of nosocomial infection? UTI
What is the 2nd most common type of nosocomial infection? post-surgical wound infections
Besides UTI and post-surgical wound infections, name 2 more nosocomial infections that are very common. 1. lower respiratory/pneumonia 2. bloodstream/septicemia
Don't use an antimicrobial lotion for __ seconds after you have washed your hands. 30
Don't __ dust fomites. dry
Medical asepsis is intended to stop the spread of ? pathogens
Surgical asepsis is intended to stop the spread of ? all microbes
The first line of immunological defense is ? intact skin and accessories
The 2nd line of immunological defense is ? phagocytosis and fever
The 3rd line of immunological defense is ? antibodies
Which antibody is the largest and the first responder? IgM
Which antibody is predominant in secretions and found in breast milk? IgA
Which antibody is the smallest, the most abundant, and crosses the placenta? IgG
Which antibody is associated with basophils, mast cells, and allergens? IgE
What disease is so virulent that 1-10 microbes is enough for it to be pathogenic? measles
What disease has a virulence so low that it takes 10 million microbes for it become pathogenic? cholera
What are the microbial traits that a pathogen can use to invade and establish itself inside of a host? virulence factors
The minimum number of microbes that must enter or attach to cells in the body to become infectious? infectious dose
These minute, hair-like structures help microbes attach to things. fimbriae
Microbes are more resistant to phagocytosis if they have a ? capsule
Long, thread-like structures used for locomotion are called ? flagella
Some strains of bacteria can produce __ that break up clots that would otherwise block them from spreading to other parts of the body. kinases
An enzyme that attacks the interstitial cement of connective tissues by depolymerizing hyaluronic acid. hyaluronidase
An enzyme used by bacteria to form fibrin clots that they can use to cover themselves and that protects them from the immune system. coagulase
A enzyme that digests keratin in the skin. keratinase
This enzyme digests the protective coating of mucous membranes. mucinase
This exoenzyme kills WBCs. leukocidin
This exoenzyme disrupts the membranes of RBCs. hemolysins
This enzyme causes death of healthy cells and tissues. necrotizing enzyme
What type of toxin works in 2 parts? A-B toxins
Created by: IsaacJ