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Ch. 11

Building Information Systems and Managing Projects

acceptance testing Provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
Component-based development Building large software systems by combining pre-existing software components.
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) Automation of step by step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amounts of repetitive work the developer needs to do.
Conversion the process of changing from the old system to the new system
Customization the modification of a software package to meet an organizations unique requirements without destroying the package softwares integrity
Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a systems component process and the flow of data between them.
Direct cutover strategy A risky conversion approach where the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day.
Documentation Descriptions of how an information system works from either a technical or end user standpoint
End-user development the development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists.
Ergonomics the interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end user interface of information systems.
Feasibility study as part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organizations resources and constraints.
Formal Planning and tools improve project management by listing the specific activities that make up a project, their duration, and the sequence and timing of tasks.
Gantt chart visually represents the timing, duration, and human resource requirements of project tasks, with each task represented as a horizontal bar whose length is proportional to the time required to complete it.
Implementation simons final stage of decision making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution.
Information requirements a detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy; identifies who needs what information, and when, where, and how the information is needed.
Information systems plan a road map indicating the direction of system development the rationale, the current situation, the management strategy, the implementation plan and the budget.
Intangible benefits benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making.
Joint application design (JAD) process to accelerate the generation of information requirments by having end users and information systems specialist work together in intensive interactive design sessions.
Maintenance changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production requirements, or improve processing efficiency.
Object-oriented development approach to systems development that uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. the system is modeled as a collection of objects and the relationship between them
Organizational impact analysis study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations.
Parallel strategy a safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly.
PERT charts graphically depicts project tasks and their interrelationships, showing the specific activities that must be completed before others can start.
Phased approach introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units.
Portfolio analysis an analysis of the portfolio of potential applications with a firm to determine the risks and benefits, and to select among alternatives for information systems.
Process specifications describe the logic of the processes occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram.
Production the stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals.
Project a planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective.
Project management application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to achieve specific targets within specified budget and time constraints.
Prototyping the process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that users can better determine information requirements.
Rapid application development (RAD) process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, fourth generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists.
Request for Proposal(RFP) a detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services to determine how well the organizations specific requirements.
Scope defines what work is or is not included in a project.
Scoring model a quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of ratings for selected objectives.
Structure chart system documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure; can document one program, one system, or part of one program.
Structured refers to the fact that techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each step building on a previous one.
System testing tests the functioning of the information system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.
Systems analysis the analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system.
Systems design details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis.
Systems development life cycle (SDLC) a traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialist
Tangible benefits benefits that can be quantified and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increased cash flows.
Test plan prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all of the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
Testing the exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions.
Unit testing the process of testing each program separately in the system. sometimes called program testing.
User-designer communications gap the difference in backgrounds, interests, and priorities that impede communication and problem solving among end users and information systems specialists.
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