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Mgmt Quiz 1

Study Guide

What are the characteristics of a “people first” organization? Employment Security Extensive Training Selective Hiring Information Sharing Decentralization Comparatively High Compensation Reduction in Status Differences
Tools for building a high performing organization Strong, Consistent Culture Extensive training Wide sharing of information strong leadership selective hiring decentralization rewards and recognition little status difference
What are the key factors that set the context for setting strategy? Environment Resources Available History
What Constitutes Environment Competitive Legal, Social, Political Customer Demand
What Resources financial, technological, reputation,personnel
Why is history important? Manager’s need to understand a company’s past, how it was founded or formed, the key events or crises that shaped its evolution, and how the organization has been managed.
What are the elements of a strategy? Products or services offered Target markets or customers Technological Choices Timing
What is the difference between an opportunity gap and a performance gap? • Organization performance gaps are the differences between desired and real performance. • Opportunity gaps are proactively created performance gaps to help the company be successful in the future.
What are the key elements of the congruence model? Identify the unit's crucial performance or opportunity gaps Critical tasks and workflows Formal organizational arrangements People Culture
What is a congruence model? congruence based problem solving approach. It suggests that the alignment or congruence between strategy and four organizational building blocks-critical tasks and workflows, formal organizational arrangements, people, and culture—drives today’s success.
What does a an in congruent model suggest? Incongruence, a lack of alignment, or inconsistencies among these elements is almost always at the root of today’s performance gaps
What are the key questions in assessing congruence? Be able to provide examples of alignment and misalignment from you own organization. (T&O, class) task-people- task-formal organization task-culture
To successfully use the congruence model, what are common problems that must be overcome? (T&O) Identify unit’s crucial performance or opportunity gaps Describe critical tasks and work processes Check for organizational congruence Develop solutions and take corrective actions Observe the response and learn from the consequences
What are the characteristics of successful initiative taking? • Taking risks • Working hard • Goal-oriented • Motivation to succeed in a course of action doing something above and beyond your job description helping people seeing an activity through completion
What is the difference between a manifest need and latent need? What makes needs manifest? (class) • A manifest need is present whereas a latent need hidden. Needs manifest based on situational factors
What are the characteristics of people with high need for achievement? Tend to want to take personal responsibility for solving problems • Goal oriented • Seek challenge • Take calculated moderate risks Desire concrete feedback on performance
What are the factors used in making attributions about performance Consensus- the degree to which other people are engaging in the same behavior Consistency Distinctiveness
What is the relationship between employees’ satisfaction and performance? Job satisfaction causes performance Performance causes satisfaction Rewards intervene and there is no inherent relationship
How do the Big Five personality dimensions relate to individuals’ performance at work? Conscientiousness Introversion-Extroversion Agreeableness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience
What is conscientiousness in relation to performance? the hardworking, diligent, organized, dependable, and persistent behavior of a person. A low score depicts a lazy, disorganized, and unreliable person. individuals who score high in tend to have high levels of motivation & perform well in many areas
Extraversion-introversion in relation to performance? the degree to which a person is sociable, gregarious, and assertive versus reserved, quiet, and timid. Extraverted people tend to perform well in sales and management jobs, do better in training programs, and have higher levels of job satisfaction
Agreeableness in relation to performance? the degree of working well with others by sharing trust, warmth, and cooperativeness. People who are low scorers on this dimension are cold, insensitive, and antagonistic. People who are high in agreeableness tend to be better team players
Emotional stability in relation to performance? the ability to handle stress by remaining calm, focused, and self-confident, as opposed to insecure, anxious, and depressed. individuals with high levels of both emotional stability and conscientiousness tend to have higher levels of performance
Openness to experience in relation to performance? a person’s range of interest in new things. Open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive, as opposed to being closed-minded. People high in openness tend to thrive in jobs and occupations where change is continuous and innovation is high
How are perceptual factors (halo effect, etc.) likely to affect performance appraisals? (text, class) Stereotype Halo Effect Attribution Theory Similar-to-me-Errors
What is emotional intelligence? Ability to calm down anxiety, control impulsiveness, and react appropriately to anger. empathy-the ability to respond to the unspoken feelings of others, self-awareness-an awareness of one’s own personality or individuality good social skills
Which communication barriers are likely to negative affect communicating at work? (text, class) individual differences Structural Barriers Diverse Mental Models
What are guidelines for giving feedback? Appropriate Setting Self-Disclosure Examine own motives Give prompt feedback relating to specifics, descriptive rather than evaluative, avoid overload, offer rather than impose, highlight costs of behavior, and watch for feedback from the subordinate
What are the steps in conducting a performance appraisal? (packet, class) Conducting a performance appraisal, Scheduling,Agreeing on context, Agreeing on process, Location and space. Opening the interview, Starting the discussion, Exchanging feedback, Expressing your views as the manager of the subordinate,Developing a plan for improvementClosing the discussion
What is a mental model? How can it be tested? • A mental model is a strongly held image about how the world works. It is based on assumptions. It shapes perceptions and interpretations of events. It provides a pattern for thinking and acting.
How can a mental model be tested? o Asking for information o Describing background for decisions o Using scenarios o Balancing disclosure  Step-by-step Appropriate setting
What is difference between compliance, identification, and internalization? see definitions
What is Compliance? amounts to doing something because of the costs of not doing it. Doing something because you were told to do it, you may not agree or resent doing it, based on the power of the requestor to control outcomes.
What is Identification? occurs when you are influenced by someone because of the attractiveness of that person because that person either is likable and has charisma or represents something to which you aspire (i.e. an important person). – based on respect for the requestor
What is Internalization? happens when leaders have the necessary expertise and values to be credible to their followers. They come to believe what the leader suggests is in fact the best course of action for them. Leader’s opinions are seen as valid and trustworthy—mental model
What are the sources of power within an organization? • Perceived ability to solve critical issues • Unique abilities and skills • Ability to build obligations • Controlling rewards and punishments • Position • Reputation for helping others resolve problem
Identify some of the “valued currencies” that can be used to influence? (text pg 118) Inspiration related currencies Networks, information, new resources, vision, moral/ethical, reputation, visibility
What are the strategies for influence in an organization and which are most effective? (class) Low pay off options Moderate pay off options High pay off options
What are low pay off options? • Assertiveness (pressure)- Not sustainable, has negative effects, falls under compliance, • Upward appeals (escalation)- could damage the relationship • Coalition building (ganging up)-Peer pressure
What are moderate pay off options? • Ingratiation (relationships)-could be superficial • Exchange- quid pro quo, leveraging past support, let’s make a deal, this for that
What are high pay off options? Rational persuasion Consultation Inspirational appeals
What can be done to build an effective relationship with a boss? Understanding your boss and the forces affecting him or her o Goals and objectives o Rewards o Pressures o Power o Strengths and weaknesses o Style • Look for feedback • Keep boss informed • Work to build a partnership • Reward your boss
What can be done to build an effective relationship with a boss cont? Understand yourself, know your own strengths, and weaknesses Make sure the relationship fits both you and your boss’s needs and styles Is characterized by mutual expectations dependability and honesty selectively uses your boss time and resources
Why is conflict so prevalent in organizations? Varying viewpoints,work styles, communication patterns, ambiguity about roles, assignments, objectives,unique values and perceptions, have different norms actin social setting, Organizations demand dynamic, not static relationships, adjusting to changes
What are the structural approaches to dealing with conflict? • Emphasizing superordinate goals • Reducing differentiation • Improving communication and understanding • Reducing interdependence • Increasing resources • Clarifying Rules and Procedures
What are the psychological bases of influence? Reciprocation Similarities Consistency Social Proof-Conformidy
What are the factors that determine whether a third party should try to control or resolve a conflict? • Time Pressure • Motivation to Resolve • Resources available for resolution • Nature of stakes and payoffs • Balance of power
How is conflict controlled? • Prevention or reduction of interaction • Structuring the forms of interaction • Reduction or altercation of external factors
Types of Resolving conflict Arbitration Delegation Mediation
What are the steps in mediating a conflict? Interview the parties separately conduct an initial meeting Use a recess strategically help the parties find win-win settlements Help the parties evaluate alternative settlements
What factors in an organization increase cohesiveness? Increased interaction, similar attitudes and values, super-ordinate goals, a common enemy, success, status of group compared to other groups , low frequency of external interactions, ease with conflict, and when resources are abundant
What are the consequences of cohesiveness? high productivity, increased satisfaction, and development low productivity due to high social interaction, offending others so members do not speak up, fall victim to group think, fear of displeasing others leads to poor decision making
What factors contribute to differentiation within a group? • Status/Rank brought to the group from outside • Individual adherence to group norms • Group-related roles assumed by members
What are the consequences of differentiation? some members may become isolates and deviants, lower productivity-group members adjust productivity up or down depending on group norms, dissatisfaction though assumed assigned roles, can limit growth if members stick to the same roles/responsibilities
How do norms and cohesiveness influence performance of a group? P1-High Cohesiveness and Norms Aligned with performance P2-low Cohesiveness, Norms aligned with performance P3-Norms not Aligned, low cohesiveness P4=Norms not aligned, high cohesiveness
How do external relations affect group performance transfer of tacit knowledge,outside support, Increase understanding of company’s strategy/objectives, share information,Bring new and different perspectives,power to a group through increased networks,fill structural holes,identify possible solutions,
What are the issues faced by groups at each stage of their development-Forming? Ability to express ideas, concerns, and share expectations about goals objectives.Participation unbalanced and superficial, strategy unclear, decision making done by the leader, little division of labor,interactions are cautious
What are the issues faced by groups at each stage of their development-Storming? Power struggles, disagreement or confusion around goals and objectives, struggles over division of labor and responsibility, challenges to structure, leadership issues, interactions can be conflict ridden
What are the issues faced by groups at each stage of their development-Norming? few issues occur in this stage, Issues around member evaluation and division of labor can arise as well as issues around productivity, efficiency, performance, and satisfaction.
What are the issues faced by groups at each stage of their development-Performing? performance recognition and the process of the group as it faces new task problems and as members grow and develop. As working conditions change, aspects of issues bypassed on the way may become important.a group may recycle through these steps
What are the characteristics of an effective task force? Task oriented Diversity of skills Little “dead wood Ability to use external networks works with upper mgmt for support, commitment, and resources, strong leadership Clear goals/strategy
What are options for managing varying levels of involvement in a group? Increase/decrease cohesiveness Complicate/Simplify RIPs Coordinate meetings, Develop a common understanding of the group’s task, Establish working procedures and relationships, Have open communication and motivate information sharing
How do you Complicate RIPS? increase opportunities for interaction and group problem solving, use group goals and hold individuals accountable for group results, create opportunities for cross-training
How do you Increase Cohesiveness? Treat the group as a team, give the group a shared success, reduce interpersonal friction
How do you Work to align norms? be a model of high performance, articulate a compelling vision, use small incentives to reward new behavior, identify a common threat that can be escaped only through high performance
How do you Decrease Cohesiveness? treat the group as a set of individuals
How do you Simply RIPS? reduce the use of meetings, channel communications through you
Created by: akaraliu



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