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immunology quiz 5

clls- 316

genotype sequence DNA that is inherited/can't see
phenotype anything produced by the genotype/expressions of the genotype/can see
what are the antigens present on all blood cells phenotype
what controls which antigens may be expressed on a cell genotype
genes carried on chromosomes located at the locus
how many pairs of chromosomes do humans have 23 pairs/ 22 pairs are autosomes and the 23rd is the sex chromosomes
haploid 1/2 of each pair of chromosomes
X chromosome female
Y chromosome male
chromosomes are made up of DNA
alleles various forms of the same gene
homozygous when both chromosomes of a pair have the same gene/ 2 identical alleles
heterozygous when 1 chromosome of a pair carries 1 allele and the other a differ allele/ 2 differ alleles
amorph "silent gene" does not produce any obvious, easily detectable antigen
dosage when an antibody reacts more strongly with a red cell antigen due to homozygous gene expression vs. heterozygous gene expression
gene linkage when 2 genes are located close together on a chromosome/travel together
Mendelian genetics Mendel-studied flower color, seed shape, color and appearance
Punnett Squares diagrams used by scientists to help them figure out how inherited traits will be distributed
Mendel's first law Law of independent segregation/independent traits inherited independently/single traits can be passed from generation to generation
codominance both alleles are expressed and their gene products are seen at the phenotypic level (lab)
Mendel's second law Law of independent assortment/genes for differ traits are inherited separately from each other
autosomal dominant inheritance alleles are carried on any autosome/trait appears every generation/equally in males & females
autosomal recessive only in homozygotes who have the recessive gene/usually skips a generation/males & females equally affected
X-linked inheritance dominant & recessive/ both male & females will express x-linked trait if they carry 1 gene/ recessive by all males/ females express the recessive trait if they are homozygous for the gene
Immunohematology study or science of blood group antigens and antibodies
blood banking storing or banking of blood for later use
transfusion medicine dealing with transfusion of the blood and blood products
Karl Landsteiner discovered the ABO system
2 major developments in transfusion medicine 1.Karl Landsteiner -ABO system 2.how to prevent blood from clotting outside the body
immunity host organism protects itself from attacks by both external and internal agents
immune response ability of an individual to respond to a foreign substance
factors that affect the immune response 1.Type of antigen 2.Amount or dose of antigen 3.Route of entry 4.Immunological condition of the host
What are the most common ways a person may be exposed to RBC antigens transfusions and pregnancy
blood bank antigens located on surface of RBC's/some are carbohydrate based and protrude/ others are lipoproteins and are imbedded
antigen is a substance that induces the formation of antibodies
antibodies immunoglobulins/in the gamma globulin portion of plasma or serum/bind foreign molecules called antigens/1 antibody reacts to 1 antigen
What are the most significant antibodies in blood bank testing IgG, IgM, IgA
IgG most clinically significant/reacts at body temp/capable of crossing the placenta/ capable of destroying transfused antigen pos RBC's
IgM most naturally occurring/reacts at room temp/ can mask detection of more dangerous IgG antibodies during testing
IgA 30% of anti-a and anti-b antibodies are IgA/ can result in anaphylaxis if present in transfused plasma products
complement complex group of proteins that have a multitude of functions within the immune response: lysis of cells, bacteria, and viruses; phagocytosis; mediate inflammatory and immune response.
What are the pathways of complement activation Classical, Alternate, and Lectin
Classical pathway activated by the binding of antigen with IgM or IgG antibodies
Alternate pathway activated by high molecular weight molecules found on the surface of foreign matter
Lectin pathway activated by the attachment of mannose-binding lectin to microbes
Antigen-antibody reactions "visualize" agglutination, precipitation, neutralization, hemolysis, fluorescent bonding, radioimmunoassay
agglutination primary method used in blood bank
What are the 2 stages in the Agglutination process 1. Sensitization 2. agglutination
sensitization stage attaching the antibody to the antigen. Can't see
What are factors that can affect sensitization temp, pH of the medium, incubation time, ionic strength, Ag-Ab ratio
agglutination stage driving the sensitized cells together to form a lattice structure of agglutination by centrifuging. Can see
Zeta potential energy between 2 charged particles
What is a strong positive reaction that indicates an Ag-Ab reaction has occurred Hemolysis
Acrylamide gel column technology controlled centrifugation of red cells through a dextranacrylamide gel/ single cells can get through gel (negative), clumped cant (positive)
solid phase adherence used to detect & identify antigen or antibody/ consists of chemically modified microplates that are coated with antibody or red cells
Immunoglobulin testing Involves detecting human immunoglobulin attached to a blood group antigen an the surface of a RBC (sensitization)
What is one of the most important testing methods in blood bank Immunoglobulin testing
Immunoglobulin testing principle relies on the fact that AGH found in rabbits will react with human globulin or antibody/ if it attaches to the red cell antigen, agglutination will occure
DAT Direct antiglobulin testing/ in vivo antibody sensitization/ IgG antibodies
IAT Indirect antiglobulin testing/ in vitro sensitization of RBC with blood group antibodies/ take RBC and add antibodies into a test tube
Created by: pamela18