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I&T in SpExS midterm

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anabolic increase in muscle mass
androgenic masculinizing effect
biosynthesis of testosterone begins in adrenal cortex. continues with testicular leydig cells or ovaries.
testosterone in men 95% made in testicular leydig cells, the rest in adrenal cortex. [300-1000ng/dl]
testosterone in women major production in adrenal cortex, with a little being made in the ovaries. [15-65ng/dl]
testosterone in young rapid increase for boys at age 10-13
negative side effects of testosterone gynecomastia, hirsutism, clitoral enlargement...
negative feedback loop and testosterone shuts down endogenous production. can cause testicular shrinkage
physiologic role of growth hormone linear growth in children, promotes anabolic metabolism, alters body composition, synthesis and release of IGF-1
prohormone precursor to hormone. weaker.
caffeine most readily available and used psychoactive drug on the planet. bitter, white crystalline powder. synthesized from plants. stimulated the CNS, not as strongly as amphetamines
how caffeine works stimulates CNS by binding to receptor in place of adenosine. this delays the feeling of fatigue that would occur if adenosine bound to receptor
half-life of caffeine 3 to 6 hours. 5 hour energy
caffeine effect on endurance activities depends on study. one group says it helps metabolize fat for energy
caffeine effect on resistance activities depends on study.
dose response of caffeine most studies show an effect of 5 to 6 mg/kg BW
side effects of caffeine use dependency, insomnia, nervousness, headache, tachycardia, nausea
creatine a naturally occuring acid. 95% is stored in the muscle
role of creatine part of the PCr fuel system
endogenous sources of creatine kidneys. from methylation of guanidinoacetate
exogenous sources of creatine primarily in meat, including fish
effect of creatine during exercise helps convert ADP to ATP
responders and non-responders to creatine supplementation usually responders had a high initial muscle creatine content
loading phase of creatine week-long phase
differences in muscle fiber type in response to creatine supplementation type 2 may respond better
resistance or explosive activities and creatine supplementation pretty good evidence that it helps
aerobic activities and creatine supplementation possible benefits, but inconclusive
scientifically proven drawbacks to creatine supplementation none yet
gender differences with creatine supplementation both respond
beta alanine non-essential amino acid synthesized in the liver; used in muscle cells to synthesize carnosine
beta alanine sources protein containing foods (chicken, turkey, beef, fish)
mechanism that makes beta alanine effective muscle buffering capacity of carnosine
muscle carnosine synthesized from beta alanine to buffer hydrogen ions during exercise
effect of beta alanine supplementation on carnosine levels increases
side effects of beta alanine supplementation parasthesia
is beta alanine anabolic no
does type of exercise influence muscle carnosine content no but supplementation during training does
minimum level of beta alanine that must be ingested for effectiveness not defined yet
does beta alanine supplementation help performance in older adults yes
does beta alanine help - aerobic training for the most part, especially for exercise between 60 and 240 seconds
does beta alanine help - resistance training unsure - maybe
HMB amino acid metabolite of leucine
sources of HMB naturally in muscle cells; food - milk, avocado, citrus fruit, fish
how does HMB work helps combat protein breakdown, helps in muscle repair; may have to build up some to get effects
HMB and muscle-wasting diseases has been used as treatment; ie with ALS
HMB side effects none to date
HMB benefits helps strengthen muscle cell membranes, modulates protein degradation, up-regulates protein synthesis, increases fat oxidation
HMB and aerobic exercise probably helps; may reduce muscle damage
HMB and resistance exercise inconclusive on results; may work better in untrained athletes because they have more muscle damage. probably works to reduce muscle damage
exercise order for resistance training power, other core, assistance exercises
pre-exhaustion "reverse" exercise arrangement wherein athlete purposefully fatigues a large muscle group as a result of performance of a single joint exercise prior to a multijoint exercise involving the same muscle
circuit training alternated upper and lower body exercises with minimal rest periods
push-pull alternates pushing exercises (ie bench press, shoulder press, triceps extension) with pulling exercises (ie lat pulldown, bent-over row, biceps curl); a method of improving recovery and recruitment between exercises
supersets involves two sequentially performed exercises that stress two opposing muscles or muscle areas
compound sets involves sequentially performing two different exercises for the same muscle group
strength - load, repetitions, rest >85, <6, 2-5 min
power (single effort)- load, repetitions, rest 80-90, 1-2, 2-5 min
power (multiple effort)- load, repetitions, rest 75-85, 3-5, 2-5 min
hypertrophy - load, repetitions, rest 67-85, 6-12, 30s-1.5 min
endurance - load, repetitions, rest <67, >12, <30s
benefits of aerobic training increase in VO2max, increased capillary density, increased mitochondria, increased cardiac contractile strength, increased stroke volume, reduced resting heart rate, decreased body fat, increased HDL/decreased LDL
ACSM recommendation for aerobic training 150 minutes per week
how is energy produced in mitochondria, Krebs cycle with carbs or fat (OP) aerobically. PCr or glycolysis anaerobically
hyponatremia problem when overhydrating
HIIT repeated short-to-long bouts of rather high intensity exercise interspersed with revovery periods
benefits of HIIT increase in blood and plasma volume, blood flow to muscles/capillaries density, oxidative enzymes; decrease in HR, glycogen usage, glucose; less time commitment
drawbacks of HIIT higher intensity; usually can't do for an extended period of time (months)
effect of HIIT on VO2max usually helps
effect of HIIT on body mass, fat mass, etc burn faster, longer because body is put in repair state
what populations has HIIT been successful in college, middle-aged, cardio pts in clinical setting
benefits of ECPs different workout routine, functional fitness, similar benefits as traditional, camraderie
drawbacks of ECPs increased risk of injury (especially if unsupervised), high-intensity, need experience in multijoint movements or close supervision
who can benefit from ECPs military, police, firemen
who can get hurt using ECPs anyone. risk of SCT, rhabdomyolysis. untrained
rhabdomyolysis definition the breakdown of muscle fibers that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents (myoglobin) into the bloodstream. harmful to the kidneys
causes of rhabdomyolysis severe exertion such as excessive exercises or marathon running
symptoms of rhabdomyolysis abnormal urine color (dark, red, cocoa cola), decreased urine production, general weakness, muscle stiffness or aching (myalgia), muscle tenderness, weakness of fatigued muscles, fatigue, joint pain, seizures, unintentional weight gain
prevention of rhabdomyolysis drink plenty of fluids after strenuous exercise or any event that may have caused muscle damage
treatment of rhabdomyolysis fluids with bicarbonate, medicines with a diuretic or bicarbonate. depends on extent of kidney damage
sickle cell disease definition a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule found in RBCs that delivers O2 throughout the body
sickle cell trait definition only carry one sickle gene. won't develop the disease, usually won't feel sick
sickle cell anemia definition have abnormal hemoglobin S
complications from SCT urinary tract infection, fatal exertional heat illness, enlarged or hemorrhaging spleen, complication to the lungs
symptoms of SCT low number of RBCs, repeated infections, periodic episodes of pain
precautions in training people with SCT build up slowly in training with paced progressions, allowing longer periods of rest and recovery between repetitions; exclusion from performance tests. emphasize hydration. control asthma
treatment of SCT check vital signs, administer high-flow oxygen, cool athlete if necessary
benefits of minimalist/barefoot running movement to a mid to forefoot strike reduces stress on knee, quicker cadence (shorter stance phase), shift of GRF from knee to ankle
drawbacks to minimalist/barefoot running very thin or no soles, GRFs closer to ankle can cause achilles and ankle issues, increased stress fractures of lower leg, calf fatigues and become rear foot striker (increase stress on knee)
transition from regular to minimalist/barefoot running don't run more than a mile of any run barefoot in the first week. increase the distance being run barefoot incrementally at no more than 10% per week. recommended to use a 8 to 10 week program
landing patterns RFS GRF peaks at initial strike and is absorbed at knee. BF, minimalist land at mid to forefoot
underlying theory behind altitude training increased RBC production
physiologic response to altitude training body senses lower barometric pressure, increases breathing rate and erytrhopoetin release (increases RBC).
response for aerobic athlete run faster at altitude
overtraining at altitude problems trying to maintain same pace during initial month at altitude
live high train high altitude training theory get aerobic/EPO benefits, but initially harder to train
altitude training technology tents, rooms, apartments that contain reduced oxygen percentage in air, can be adjusted to stimulate various altitudes
undertraining at altitude run at same effort, actually running at a lower speed
live high train low altitude training theory get benefits of altitude, easier to train
live low train high altitude training theory not recommmended. don't receive benefits to RBC
caution of going to altitude dehydration threat
speed at altitude less drag. faster sprinting possible, baseball goes further when hit.
erythropoietin development produced in the kidneys; helps RBCs mature
natural trigger of enhanced EPO production hypoxia
who was exogenous EPO originally developed to help cancer and kidney patients
test for EPO Hct (%RBC). normal 40-45%. high % is dangerous for cardiovascular
female athlete triad components disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis
disordered eating lowers energy availability impacting cellular maintenance, thermoregulation, growth, reproduction
energy availability and bone health, direct stimulates production of hormones that promote bone formation
energy availability and bone health, indirect preserves eumenorrhea and estrogen production that restrains bone resorption (body looking for calcium)
amenorrhea, bones stress fracture is 2-4 times greater
medical complications of female athlete triad cardiovascular, endocrine, reproductive, skeletal, gastrointestinal, renal, CNS
prevalence of female athlete triad studies are inconclusive
Created by: selfstudy08
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