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Immun1 Test2 Advance

A more advanced practice test for the next Immunology test 2, Del-Tech Owens

QuestionAnswer
What tells the T cell receptor of an immature, double-positive T cell (positive for both CD4 and CD8) to differentiate into a single positive cell? MHC1 (CD8) or MHC2 (CD4)
Where does differentiation of T cells into CD8 or CD4 positive T cells occur? Thymus
What two processes select immature T cells whose receptors lack the correct antigen specificities? Positive selects T cells whose T cell receptors recognize self-MHC proteins correctly. Negative selection allows autoreactive T cells to die.
What are the 2 signals needed to activate T cells? 1. MHC/antigen complex with a T cell receptor keyed to that antigen 2. The costimulatory signal of the CD28 protein on the T cell with the B7 protein on the antigen presenting cells.
What is the response of a T cell to an antigen presenting cell that lacks one of the signals needed to activate a T cell? Anergy (no reaction)
Which cytokine released by Th1 cells activates macrophages? y-Interferon
Besides y-Interferon, what other signal can activate a macrophage? Interaction of CD40 on macrophages with CD40L on T cells.
What are the major cytokines released by activated macrophages? TNF, IL-1, IL-8, IL-6, IL-12
When released by macrophages, what do IL-1 and IL-8 recruit? leukocytes
When released by macrophages, what does IL-6 activate? Lymphocytes
When released by macrophages, what does IL-12 differentiate? Th1 cells
The body needs hypersensitivity against what kind of pathogens? intracellular (TB, Histoplasma, etc.)
Patients with T cell deficiencies are more vulnerable to what type of pathogens? Mycobacterial, fungal, viral
Which cytokines help B cells produce antibodies? IL-4 and IL-5
How do CD8+ cytotoxic T cells kill tumor or virally infected cells? Lysis or apoptosis
What is the main antibody released in the early stages of a primary humoral response? IgM
What immune cell kills infected cells that don't have an MHC1 protein? NK cells
Which cytokine is does a similar job to GM-CSF? IL-3
What chromosome has the HLA in humans? short arm of chromosome 6
What antibodies can bind to C1? IgM and IgG
What is the difference between IgM and IgG when binding to C1? Several IgG antibodies are needed to bind to C1. Only one IgM antibody is needed.
Which is more effective at binding to C1: IgM or IgG? IgM (only one antibody is needed)
What is the difference in the C3 convertase developed by the 3 pathways? Lectin and classical C3 convertase is C4b2a. Alternative is C3bBb.
At what point do all 3 complement factors converge. Some sources say C3 convertase, some say C5. For our test, it's C3.
What part doe C5-C9 play in the complement cascade? Generates MAC
What is the most common complement factor deficiency? C2
Deficiencies in C5-C9 leave patients vulnerable to what specific microbes? Neisseria species of bacteria (Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis)
Name 2 molecules that cause direct opsonization. IgG, C3b
Why is tolerance medically important? It prevents autoimmune diseases
Selfreactive lymphocytes are eliminated by what process? Negative selection
Which class of genes is most closely associated with autoimmunity? HLA
What disease causes autoantibodies to form against IgG in the joints? Rheumatoid arthritis
Why does agglutination occur in lab testing of blood? Cross-linking between antigen and antibody that forms complexes that result in agglutination.
What type of immune response would you get from a T helper cell once it recognizes an MHC2 molecule during antigen presentation? Humoral/B cell
What protein forms pores in the membrane of pathogen/immunogen once released by cytotoxic CD8 T cells? perforin
What kind of genes promote growth, help regulate important cell processes, and result in oncogenes once activated? proto-oncogenes
Which cytokine is used to treat hairy cell leukemia, renal cancer, hepatitis, and multiple sclerosis? Interferon
Which cytokine is used to treat melanoma and renal cancer? IL-2
Neutropenia triggers what cytokine? GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor)
Which antibody is used to downregulate the immune reaction of various autoimmune diseases? TNF-a (tumor necrotic factor alpha)
The fact that cytokines can act on several cells at once makes them ? pleiotropic
Cytokines that regulate innate immunity are usually produce by ? mononuclear phagocytes
What type of cell produces cytokines that regultes the adaptive immune system? T cells
Cytokines made in the bone marrow and the thymus regulate what? Hematopoieisis (proliferation or differentiation would also be true)
This subset of CD4 T helper cells are categorized by the cytokines they produce. They help activate macrophages to digest intracellular bacteria and protozoa. Th1
This subset of CD4 T helper cells are categorized by the cytokines they produce. They activate eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. Th2
These helper T cells (CD4+) are triggered by IL-12, IL-2 and their effector cytokine is interferon-y. Th1
These helper T cells (CD4+) are the host immunity effectors against multicellular helminths. Th2
These helper T cells (CD4+) are the host immunity effectors against intracellular bacteria and protozoa. Th1
These helper T cells (CD4+)are triggered by IL-4 and their effector cytokines are IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Th2
These helper T cells (CD4+) activate IgE B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells. Th2
These helper T cells (C4+) activate CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IFN-γ CD4 T cells. Th1
IL-5 from CD4 T cells (Th2) will activate eosinophils to attack ? helminths
The primary partner cell of the Th1 CD4 T helper cell is the ? macrophage
The primary partner cell of the Th2 CD4 T helper cell is the ? B cell
Which subset of CD4+ T helper cells activates cellular immunity? Th1 Maximizes the killing efficacy of the macrophages and the proliferation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Also promotes the production of opsonizing antibodies
Which subset of CD4+ T helper cells activates humoral immunity? Th2 stimulates B-cells into proliferation, to induce B-cell antibody class switching, and to increase neutralizing antibody production.
What kind of cells produce monokines? macrophages and monocytes
This chemical is secreted by endothelial cells that line blood vessels to attract phagocytes when an infecton is present. chemokines
This cytokine is produced by T helper cells to activate B, T, and NK cells and stimulates clonal growth. IL-2
What cytokine regulates the development of regulatory T cells and is therefore important in preventing autoimmunity? IL-2
What test measures cellular proliferation by T cells? Triated thymidine uptake assay
A test that measures that immune response of 2 organisms by mixing white blood cells from both to see if their immune systems attack one another. Mixed lymphocyte reaction
What test uses radioactive chromium to measure phagocytosis by cytotoxic T cells (CD8+)? CR51 released cytotoxicity assay
Macrophages produce which cytokines to stimulate inflammation while processing an antigen? IL-1, IL-6
What do you call the reaction between an antigen and an antibody that was first triggered by a totally different antigen? cross reactivity
When using soluble antigens to grant immunity, you might need to __ the immunization. repeat
If an adjuvant binds to a molecule that isn't immunogenic, what sort of immune response will this generate? none
Tetanus toxins can be treated with tetanus ? toxoids
What MHC molecule is expressed on all nucleated cells? MHC class 1
What MHC molecule is expressed on antigen presenting cells? MHC class 2
Which MHC molecule is likely to be expressed when an antigen presenting cell has caught a virus? MHC class 1
Which MHC molecule is likely to be expressed when an antigen presenting cell has caught a bacteria? MHC class 2
What 3 molecules help the body's immune system to recognize antigens? T cell receptors, antibodies, MHC
An immune reaction to a harmless antigen is ? allergy/autoimmunity
This term describes how genetically similar two organisms are to one another. phylogenetic relationship
Without a __, lipids and especially nucleic acids may never trigger an immune response. carrier
What part of a vaccine may cause inflammation at the site of injection in order to improve the immune response? adjuvant
What highly immunogenic molecule is thymic-dependent? protein
Carbohydrates do not produce a strong __ response. T cell
What adjuvant is made from mineral oil and water? Freund's adjuvant
MHC is part of which immune system? acquired
Which MHC molecule is needed to activate CD 4 T cells for antigen recognition? MHC class 2
Which MHC molecule is associated with the cellular immune response? class 1
Which MHC molecule is associated with the humoral immune response? class 2
Which structures check the MHC class 2 molecules during antigen presentation and are also needed to activate the T cell? CD4, T cell receptor
Which structures check the MHC class 1 molecules during antigen presentation and are also needed to activate the T cell? CD8, T cell receptor
What prevents the immune system from attacks its own antigens? self tolerance
What describes the highest dilution of a serum that will agglutinate a standard amount of cells? titer
What kind of dilution is used to dilute a substance using the same ratio or fold? serial dilution
A substance dissolved in another substance is called ? solute
An inert substance used to dissolve another substance is called ? diluent
The first tube in a 2 fold serial dilution is 1:2. What is the 5th tube? 1:32
The first tube in a 3 fold serial dilution is 1:2. What is the 3rd tube? 1:12
What do you call the enzyme that convert the next protein in a sequence into its active form? convertase
Which pathway is activated by antigen-antibody complexes? Classical
Which antibodies activate that classical pathway? IgM, IgG
Which pathway is activated by lipopolysaccharides, polysaccharides, and trypsin-like enzymes? Alternative
Which pathway combines C3 with Factors B, D, P, and then splits into C3a and C3b? Alternative
Which pathway needs MBL or ficolin binding to sugars in order to activate it? Lectin
C5b combines with C6, C7, C8, and C9 to form ? MAC (membrane attack complex)
Fragments of complement proteins (usually the a fragments) that are released during activation and stimulate the release of histamine from mast cells, sometimes putting people into a state of shock. Anaphylatoxins
Which is more important to the lectin pathway. MBL or ficolin? Ficolin
Which trigger of the lectin pathway binds to carbs on the surfaces of bacterial and fungal cells and tends to be exist at higher levels in serum? Ficolin
Which test measures deficiencies in the alternative pathway? AH50 assay
Which test measures deficiencies in the classical pathway? CH50 assay
Which protease inhibitor regulates the classical pathway by inactivating C1? C1INH
CR1, also known as CD35 or Erythrocyte complement receptor 1, regulates which pathways by acting as a cofactor and by decelerating enzyme activity? all pathways
What factor inhibits the alternative pathway by blocking C3b from binding to microbial cell surfaces? Factor H
Which test measures the amount of patient serum required to lyse half of a standardized concentration of antibody sensitized sheep RBCs? CH50 assay (tests classical pathway in this manner)
Measuring the amount of this complement in the serum gives an indication of activation through the classical or lectin pathways. What is it? C4a
Measuring the amount of this complement in the serum gives an indication of activation through the alternative pathway. Bb
Deficiencies in what 3 complement proteins have been linked to autoimmune disorders of connective tissues. SLE/Lupus, for example. C1, C4, C2
Deficiencies in this pathway lead to increased bacterial infections in children. Lectin
A deficiency of this regulatory protein can lead to hereditary angiodema (rapid swelling). C1INH
A deficiency in which complement protein does the greatest harm? It effects all pathways, screws up phagocytosis, immune complex clearance, and class switching. C3
This test determines the relative concentration of an antigen. The sample is placed in a well and allowed to diffuse into agar with an antiserum. The precipitation ring that forms around the well in the region of equivalence is shows the ag concentration. Radial immunodiffusion
Complement can lyse gram-__ bacteria but cannot lyse gram-__ bacteria. negative, positive
Complement is part of which immune system? Innate
When assaying the classical pathway, which tube should you not use? EDTA (it binds calcium)
What complement protein is found in both the alternative and classical pathways? C3
Created by: IsaacJ