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Bio101 Chpt 11 & 12

Biology Chapter 11 & 12

Which molecule would bind to an operator? active repressor
In E. coli, the operon that controls lactose-utilization genes consists of how many genes? three genes
To function as specialized cells, your muscle and bone cells undergo significant changes in gene regulation. This is because _____. different genes are switched on and off in each type of cell
The female tortoiseshell cat has a particular coat coloring because each cell contains how many active X chromosome(s)? one
What is the function of a testosterone-protein complex? It helps RNA polymerase transcribe certain genes.
Most proteins are much shorter-lived. What is the advantage to this? This enables cells to maintain a precise and efficient control over their activities.
What occurs when mRNA from the head end of an embryo is injected into the tail end of an early embryo? Some head structures develop at the tail end; the head end develops normally.
Enzymes are produced that perform a number of functions, including release of sugar into the bloodstream. What function does adrenaline play in this pathway? signal molecule
Which of the following statements is true in regard to reproductive cloning? Only a small fraction of cloned embryos develop normally.
Stem cells could be immensely important in the treatment of which of the following conditions? spinal cord injuries
A proto-oncogene is a normal gene that can change into an oncogene. Oncogenes are potentially lethal genes that can cause cancer. Why do cells continue to maintain proto-oncogenes? Correct: Proto-oncogenes are necessary for normal control of cell division.
What form of cancer is second to lung cancer in estimated number of cases for this risk factor? bladder
In prokaryotes, a group of genes with related functions is called _____. an operon
Tryptophan is placed into a culture of E. coli cells. As a result, the bacterial cells switch off transcription of tryptophan because the amino acid binds to the _____. repressor
The promoter of an operon is where ____ binds? RNA polymerase
In prokaryotes, operons regulate the rate of ____? transcription
The gene for human growth factor is inserted into the E. colilactose operon so that it replaces the structural genes with the gene for human growth factor. What substance must be added to the bacterial culture so that it produces human growth factor? lactose
In E. coli the lactose operon (lac operon) is turned on in the presence of _____. lactose
This prevents binding of the repressor to the bacterial DNA and allows a set of genes to be transcribed. The transcription of these genes is under the control of a(n) _____. operon
What functions in frequently changing environments? operons
In multicellular eukaryotic cells, the control of gene expression is more complex because _____. these cells are specialized for different functions
In eukaryotes, chromosomes are tightly coiled due to the association of histone proteins and DNA. These structures are known as _____. nucleosomes
What wraps around the DNA for organization and compaction? Nucleosomes
This pattern of sweat-gland distribution can be explained by _____ X Chromosome inactivation
Histones are DNA wrapped around histones forms a unit called a nucleosomes.
In eukaryotes, DNA packing seems to affect gene expression primarily by controlling access to DNA
The DNA-histone complexes that are formed in eukaryotic cells directly inhibit activators
Specific DNA sequences located distant to the promoter are called? Enhancers
dioxin acts by mimicking _____. the role of transciption factors
Eukaryotes have the ability to switch gene expression on or off. If a repressor protein binds to a DNA sequence called a(n) _____, it may block gene expression. silencer
In eukaryotes, gene expression is regulated mostly by _____. controlling the transcription of genes
Which of the following is true of gene regulation in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes Transcription is the typical point at which gene expression is regulated.
The regions of noncoding DNA showns that separate the coding regions within a gene are called _____. introns
MicroRNA (miRNA) functions by binding to _____ and blocking translation. complementary mRNA sequences
Gene expression can also be controlled after the mRNA molecule has left the nucleus. These mechanisms may include the _____. breakdown of RNA
Why do cells make proteins with such a short life? this enables cells to control the amount of protein present.
A scientist is investigating a new drug that blocks the action of the enzyme responsible for splicing mRNA molecules. If this drug is effective, which of the following statements will be true? RNA would remain in the nucleus as it would be unable to move through the nuclear pores, thus blocking translation of the gene.
An animal's head-to-tail axis is established by _____ egg cell mRNA
What is responsible for the appearance of the fruit fly shown below on the right? a mutation in a homeotic gene
DNA microarrays are useful tools for studying _____. gene expression
A signal transduction pathway activates a transcription factor that responds by _____. initiating mRNA synthesis
Some glucose transport molecules are controlled by levels of insulin. When insulin binds to a specific _____, the signal is relayed to a(n) _____, which then controls gene expression. receptor …. Transcription factor
Clones are derived from a single ancestor cell
Experiments involving _____ have demonstrated that differentiated cells contain all of the genetic information found in undifferentiated cells. nuclear transplantation
In frogs, when the nucleus of an intestinal cell of a tadpole is transferred to an egg whose nucleus has been removed (nuclear transplantation), some of the eggs will develop into normal tadpoles. This demonstrates that _____. these cells have retained all of their genetic potential
Researchers cloned Dolly the sheep, proving that cloning an adult animal cell can be successful. This type of cloning is known as _____ reproductive cloning
Why do you think that adult stem cells are found in bone marrow and the lining of the small intestine specifically? These cells must be a ble to regenerate various types of cells throughout life.
Embryonic stem cells differ from adult stem cells because they _____. can differentiate into all cell types
Which of the following statements best describes cancer cells? Normal controls over cell division have been altered.
Which of the following would be most likely to lead to cancer? generation of multiple copies of a proto-oncogene and inactivation of a tumor-suppressor gene
In human cells, oncogenes _____. stimulate cell division
Which of the following genes inhibits cell division? tumor-suppressor genes
A cancer cell ___. does not respond to the signals that control cell division
Most human cancers are _____. caused by the accumulation of mutations
The p53 protein ___. initiates transcription
In humans, most cancers are caused by ___. tobacco
Which of the following statements best defines recombinant DNA technology? combining genes from different sources
Scientists who wish to clone genes of interest into bacterial plasmids utilize _____, which cuts the target and vector DNA at specific sites. Then _____ is used to form covalent bonds between the resulting fragments to complete the recombinant DNA molecul a restriction enzyme; DNA ligase
The fragments produced by most restriction enzymes have _____. complementary single-stranded ends
A genomic library is _____. a collection of cloned DNA fragments from an organism's genome
Insulin used for the treatment of diabetes in humans is now obtained from _____. bacteria
Golden rice has been genetically engineered. Golden rice differs from other rice varieties because it contains genes that will produce _____. beta-carotene
DNA moves through a gel toward the positive electrode when an electric charge is applied. What property of DNA allows this to occur? Dna has a negative charge
To identify an individual involved in a crime, criminologists analyze DNA from a suspect's blood and compare the _____ to samples found at the crime scene. DNA profile
What does the term restriction fragment length polymorphism mean? fragments of DNA that are different lengths in different individuals
The individuals working on the Human Genome Project (HGP) were attempting to _____. map all the human genes and determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome
Which of the following enzymes can create a bond between adjacent, unjoined nucleotides? DNA ligase
Frequently, genetic engineers use plasmids, which are _____ small circlets of DNA found in bacteria
What is gene cloning? Gene cloning occurs when a bacterium carrying a recombinant plasmid reproduces, thus allowing for the production of multiple copies of the recombinant plasmid.
"Sticky ends" are very useful in genetic engineering because they _____. provide a site for complementary base pairing so that pieces of DNA can be linked together.
An enzyme that "cuts" DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotide bases is called _____. a restriction enzyme
The "normal" function of restriction enzymes is to _____. destroy foreign DNA
The recombinant molecule below was generated using which two enzymes? a restriction enzyme and a ligase
Shown below is the effect of a restriction enzyme known as EcoRI. Cutting with this enzyme allows scientists to _____. insert a foreign piece of DNA cut with the same restriction enzyme
What does the term sticky end refer to in genetic engineering the generation of short fragments of single-stranded DNA left at the end of a DNA molecule
When a typical restriction enzyme cuts a DNA molecule, the cuts are staggered so that the DNA fragments have single-stranded ends. This is important in recombinant DNA technology because _____. the fragments will bond to other fragments with complementary single-stranded ends
The so-called sticky ends of a plasmid or bacterial chromosome are _____. unpaired bases produced by a restriction enzyme
DNA used in recombinant DNA techniques is first cut into fragments by _____. restriction enzymes
What does the term vector refer to in genetic engineering? a plasmid or other agent used to transfer DNA into a living cell
Copies of cloned genes are stored in a _____ genomic library
If you know the nucleotide sequence, you can _____. work backward from mRNA to make a version of the gene without introns
DNA synthesized using an RNA template is called _____. cDNA
Which enzyme makes DNA from an RNA template? reverse transciptase
What purpose does a nucleic acid probe serve? It helps identify genes that have been inserted into bacterial plasmids.
What purpose does a nucleic acid probe serve? They both undergo complementary base pairing
The production of genetically identical animals that are carrying recombinant human genes for pharmaceutical purposes is called _____. pharming
Cloning human genes into the plasmids of bacteria has enabled scientists to _____. use bacteria as "factories" for protein products
How was the smallpox vaccine produced? A harmless variant, a natural mutant, was used to stimulate an immune response
Which of the following would be considered a transgenic organism? a rat with rabbit hemoglobin genes
Transgenic organisms are only scientifically or commercially useful if _____. the inserted ("foreign") gene is expressed in the host organism
Genetically modified organisms include microbes that possess enzymes promoting antibiotic resistance. This is a problem that concerns many individuals, with the rise of antibiotic-resistant organisms. However, these organisms do not pose a risk to public The conditions would be unfavorable to their survival
What does the process of gene therapy involve? It adds a functioning version of the defective gene to the cells of an individual
To date, the "easy" part of gene therapy has been _____. isolating and cloning the normal gene
DNA profiling is a forensic procedure being utilized to identify individuals. This technique _____. compares the DNA banding patterns of small segments of the genome
A genetic marker is a _____. particular nucleotide sequence whose inheritance can be followed.
What is the function of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)? It can make a large amount of DNA from a tiny amount
What is the purpose of gel electrophoresis? It allows for the seperation of fragments of DNA
DNA profiles utilize _____ DNA sequences
Archaeologists unearthed a human skull with a small dried fragment of the scalp still attached. They extracted a tiny amount of DNA from the scalp tissue. To obtain sufficient DNA for an analysis of the ancient human's genes, they could _____. use the polylmerase chain reaction
Sam is the father if _____ genetic fingerprint shows bands present in _____ genetic fingerprint. the baby's … Sam's and Becky's
DNA profiles used as evidence in a murder trial look similar to supermarket bar codes. The pattern of bars in a DNA profile shows _____. the presence of various-sized fragments of DNA
Comparison of whole genome sequences shows that we share _____ of our genome sequence with our closest relative. 96%
The current estimate for the number of genes in the human genome is about 20,500. Which of the following organisms has almost twice as many genes as humans? rice
Barbara McClintock, a 1983 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine, found a particular nucleotide sequence that repeated itself on different chromosomes in different mouse skin cells. This supported the idea that _____. transposable elements can move around in DNA
If the human genome is so large, relative to the size of other organisms' genomes, why do we have so few genes? We have a lot of "junk" DNA that does not code for anything
Celera Genomics implemented a faster way of sequencing the human genome. What was this method? shotgun cloning
The shotgun cloning technique differs from the original method of sequencing the human genome because _____. the genetic and physical mapping stages can be skipped
The shotgun cloning technique differs from the original method of sequencing the human genome because _____. Isolate any food or drink that seems to influence the expression of the gene of interest
Analysis of human and Neanderthal DNA have revealed that _____. Neanderthals may have had the ability to speak
Created by: dtgs2010
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