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Immunology1 Test2F

Practice test for Immunology test 2, after review, Del-Tech Owens

QuestionAnswer
The body cannot distinguish good antigens from bad antigens. It can only recognize __ from __. self from nonself
HLA stands for ? Human leukocyte antigen
The immune system recognizes self from non-self by what 3 ways? 1. T cell receptors 2. Products of MHC 3. Immunoglobulins (secreted and membrane bound)
What 3 things determine the immunogenicity of an antigen? 1. foreignness 2. molecular size 3. chemical complexity
The bigger the molecule the __ the immune response. bigger
Molecular complexity is related to molecular ? size
Foreignness refers to the __ __ between host and antigen. phylogenetic relationship
The more foreign the antigen, the __ the immune response. greater
An antigen from the host's own body that generates an immune response is said to be an ? autoantigen
An antigen from another member of the same species that triggers an immune response is called an ? alloantigen
An antigen from a member of another species is called a ? heteroantigen
Molecules too small to generate an immune response on their own are called ? haptens
A molecule that binds to a hapten to generate an immune response is called a ? carrier molecule
What kind of molecule often forms the strongest immunogenic reactions? proteins
A thymic-dependent antigens requires __ to deal with it immunogenically. T cells
Carbohydrates are __ immunogenic than proteins, but __ immunogenic than lipids. less, more
Carbohydrates are T-__ antigens. independent
What 2 kinds of antigens are only immunogenic if they are covalently linked to an immunogenic carrier? Lipids and nucleic acids
Which is more immunogenic, lipids or nucleic acids? Lipids
Big antigens tend to be more immunogenic. What kind of antigen is an exception to this rule? nucleic acids
What sort of compound increases the immunogenic response to an antigen? adjuvant
Adjuvants can do what to the localized inflammatory response? Increase it
Adjuvants can release the antigen more __ into the body to improve the immune response. slowly
Adjuvants can recruit more phagocytic and inflammatory cells. Why does this help the immune response? Better uptake of the antigen
All immunogens are antigens, but not all antigens are __. immunogens
Adjuvants can increase, but do not confer, __ by themselves. immunity
Name 2 types of adjuvants. 1. mineral oil 2. aluminum salts
Alum, known as Freund's Adjuvant, is a __ __ and __ mixture with 2 other ingredients. mineral oil and water, LPS, muramyldipeptide
The immune system recognizes antigens by their ? epitopes
Two types of epitopes, named for their structure, are called ? 1. linear 2. conformational
An epitope with a 3 dimensional structure is called a ? conformational epitope
Some antigens have the same or similar ? epitopes
Because epitopes can be the same for different antigens across different species, what can happen? cross-reactivity
Cross-reactivity can be involved in what sort of immune response? autoimmune
Cross-reactivity can be useful in this compound used to train the immune system to fight infections it hasn't encountered yet. vaccine
MHC molecules are inherited from our parents and expressed __. co-dominantly
How many different sets of MHC types can be inherited from both our parents in total? 4
Class 1 MHC molecules are involved in antigen presentation of __ antigens. endogenous
Class 1 MHC molecules are expressed to which kind of T cell during antigen presentation? CD8+
Class 2 MHC molecules are involved in antigen presentation of __ antigens. exogenous
Class 2 MHC molecules are expressed to which kind of T cell during antigen presentation? CD4+
How do T cells recognize antigens? T cell receptor
T cell receptors are associated with which cluster of differentiation? CD3
All nucleated cells express which kind of MHC molecule? MHC class 1
All antigen presenting cells express which kind of MHC molecule? MHC class 2
Antigens taken up by antigen presenting cells are usually strong __. immunogens
T cell receptors only exist on the T cell's surface, while antibodies can be found where? On the surface of B/plasma cells or secreted by them
What kind of MHC molecule activates a CD8 cell? MHC class 1 (CD8 T cells are cytotoxic)
What kind of MHC molecule activates a CD4 cell? MHC class 2 (CD4 T cells are helper T cells)
PAMP stands for? Pathogen associated molecular pattern
Name 3 kinds of professional antigen presenting cells. 1. Dendritic cells 2. macrophages 3. B cells (some of them)
Which is the best of the antigen presenting cells? dendritic
Name 3 kinds of nonprofessional antigen presenting cells? 1. Fibroblasts 2. thymic epithelial cells 3. vascular cells
What antigen presenting cell expresses the highest levels of MHC class 2? dendritic
How do B cells recognize antigens? surface antibody
What are the 3 major types of T cells? 1. Helper T cell 2. Cytotoxic T cell 3. Regulatory T cell
Regulatory T cells do what to the immune response? downregulate
Regulatory T cells express which kinds of clusters of differentiation? 4 and 25
Cytotoxic T cells express which kind of CD? 8
Helper T cells express which kind of CD? 4
A lack of responsiveness to a specific antigen is called ? immunological tolerance
Immunological tolerance keeps the body from attacking ? itself
Positive and negative selection of T cells occurs in the ? thymus
T cells that react to the body's own cells are called __ __. self reactive
Self reactive T cells are allowed to __. die
Double positive thymocytes are presented with MHC class 1 and 2 molecules. If they fail to recognize self MHC molecules, they die within the thymus. This is what kind of theory? positive selection theory
If an antigen presenting cell expresses the MHC class 1 molecule while presenting an epitope to a T cell, what happens to the antigen presenting cell? Death
Why would an antigen presenting cell express the MHC class 1 molecule while presenting an epitope to a T cell? It is infected
Activated T helper cells determine if the acquired immune response will be __ or __. humoral or cell mediated
The chemical communications among cells of the immune system are carried out by ? cytokines
Name 4 cytokines that are used clinically. 1. Interferon 2. Interleukin-2 3. GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor) 4. Antibody of TNF alpha
The cytokine interferon is used to treat what diseases? 1. hairy cell leukemia 2. renal cancer 3. MS 4. hepatitis
The cytokine interleukin-2 is used to treat what diseases? 1. renal cancer 2. melanoma
The cytokine GM-CSF is used to treat ? neutropenia
Lymphokines, monokines, interleukins, and chemokines are all ? cytokines
One cytokine can act on multiple cells and have multiple functions. This means they are ? pleiotropic
True or false: Cytokines can only have one function. False. They are redundant.
When combined, the effect of cytokines on the immune response can be greater than the sum of their individual reactions. This means they are ? synergistic
When cytokines have opposing effects on the immune response, the reactions is ? antagonistic
What is the effect of a cytokine when it acts on the cell that secreted it? autocrine effect
What is the effect of a cytokine when it acts on a cell nearby? paracrine effect
What is the effect of a cytokine when it acts on a cell that is far away? endocrine effect
Most cytokines are involved in cell ? proliferation
Functionally, what are the 3 regulatory categories for cytokines? 1. regulators of innate immunity 2. regulators of adaptive immunity 3. regulators of hematopoiesis
Assays can be used to measure the __ of T cells. functions
Which kind of T cell functional assay is used to test cell proliferation? Triated thymidine uptake assay with antigen
Which kind of T cell functional assay is used in transplantation cases to evaluate the histocompatibility of lymphocytes between donor and recipient? Mixed lymphocyte reaction
Which kind of T cell functional assay is used to measure cytotoxic T cells? Cr51 release cytotoxicity assay
The study of serum components in the blood is called ? serology
Blood draws done for in vitro measurement of antibody and antigen reactions in serum or plasma should be made in a __ top vacutainer. red
A sequence of dilutions made using the same ratio repeatedly is called ? serial dilution
The reciprocal of the last dilution that yields a positive test in an assay is called a ? titer
When making dilutions, the solute is the ? material being diluted
When making dilutions, the diluent is the ? solution used to dilute the solute
Another word for diluent is ? buffer
A 1/2 dilution means __ part of solute plus __ part diluent. one, one
A 1/4 dilution means __ part of solute plus __ parts of diluent. one, three
When several dilutions are made to get the final dilution, this is called a ? compound dilution
The percentage of times in which there is a true negative test result divided by the number of total negatives when the total negatives equal the tested true negatives plus the false positives. specificity
The measure of how often the assay will correctly diagnose the disease or condition being tested out of the total number of patients who have the disease or condition. sensitivity
The tested true negatives refers to the number of samples that are __ for the disorder and that test __. negative, negative
The total true negatives is the number of samples from patients that were truly __ for the disorder by that tested positive. negative
Complement proteins are produced primarily in what organ? the liver
Aside from cells in the liver, what kind of cells produce complement? monocytes, macrophages, epithelial cells
Complement goes __ during acute inflammation. up
Gram negative bacteria are __ by complement. lysed
Gram positive bacteria are __ by complement. opsonized
Complement levels can tell us if a condition is __ or __. acute or chronic
Complement is involved in the clearance of __ complexes and __ cells. immune, apoptotic
Complement goes __ during chronic inflammation. down
Complement interacts with the __ pathway. coagulation
How does complement help the host defend itself against infection? (4 ways.) 1. lysis of some pathogens 2. opsonization 3. chemotaxis 4. leukocyte activation
Complement helps what immune systems join forces? innate and acquired
Complement enhances __ through interactions with B cells and follicular dendritic cells. memory
What are the 3 complement pathways? classical, altertative, lectin
All 3 complement pathways are different strategies to reach the __ __. They are the same after this point. C3 convertase
The ultimate goal of the 3 complement pathways is to reach the ? MAC (membrane attack complex)
How is the classical pathway activated? By an antibody bound to an antigen.
Which antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway? IgM and IgG (IgG3, IgG1, IgG2)
When testing for complement, which pathway will be affected by the use of an EDTA tube? classical
Why does an EDTA tube affect the classical pathway? calcium binding
C1q of the classical pathway can be activated by ? 1. C-reactive protein (inflammation) 2. some gram negative bacteria (including E. coli) 3. several viruses 4. some protozoa 5. mycoplasmas 6. coagulation factor 13a
Which pathway is triggered LEAST directly by pathogens? classical
How is the alternative pathway activated? Microorganisms and activator surfaces
Lipopolysaccharides in the cell walls of what organisms can activate the alternative pathway? bacteria, fungi, viruses
Name 3 activator surfaces that can trigger the alternative complement pathway? IgG2, IgA, IgE
Some parasites, including __ can activate the alternative pathway. trypanosomes
What can activate the Lectin pathway? When MBL or serum ficolin bind to the surface of terminal carbohydrates
What does MBL stand for? Mannose binding lectin
Small peptides that causes histamine release from mast cells, smooth muscle contractions, and increase in vascular permeability are called ? Anaphylatoxins
Anaphylatoxins can cause __, generation of __ __, and encourage __. chemotaxis, oxygen radicals, inflammation
What inhibitor controls the classical pathway? C1INH (C1 inhibitory)
How does the C1INH regulate the classical pathway? It causes Cr1 and C1s to dissociate from C1q, stopping the cascade
Alternative pathway is controlled by ? Factor H
The lectin pathway in inhibited by ? C1INH
How does C1INH regulate the lectin pathway? It inhibits binding MBL-MASP-2
What are the 2 types of functional assays for complement? CH50 and AH50
What is mixed with the serum during an AH50 assay? rabbit blood
In the AH50 test, the amount of __ released by the cells is proportional to the amount of the alternative pathway activity. hemoglobin
How are serological antigen assays measured? by radial immunodiffusion
Acute inflammation can raise __ levels. complement
What error can falsely lower complement levels during an antigen assay? Using the wrong tube to collect the blood serum
Bacterial infections in infants are associated with deficiencies in which pathway? lectin
A deficiency in what complement protein can profoundly affect all 3 pathways? C3
Deficiencies in C1INH can effect inhibition of which pathway? Both classical and lectin
Created by: IsaacJ