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Hearing Cons. 2

Hearing Cons Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What are some employee benefits of a good HCP? 1) Prevention of NIHL 2) Detection of hearing losses due to other causes that may be untreated 3) Decrease in noise-related safety hazards (PDD - "p-diddy")
What are some employer/managements benefits of a good HCP? 1) Reduced risk of of workers comp claims 2) Improved employee morale 3) Decreased likelihood of anti-social behavior due to annoyance and stress (RID)
Who do you need cooperation from to in establishing a HCP? Everyone: - managers and supervisors - understanding of leadership - support from the workers - cooperation of union president - acoustic engineer
What is the best way to prevent NIHL? Eliminating the hazard. Although audiologists do not usually develop the noise control plan, they can stress the importance of the plan (with help of acoustic engineer)
What are the three components of a successful HCP? 1) Management support (apparent, consistent, and policy reinforcement) 2) Communication (open line of comm at all levels) 3) Key individual (one within the program who can do the day-to-day supervision; this person is NOT the "professional supervisor")
What are the major components of a HCP? - noise level monitoring (measurement) - administrative/engineering controls - audiometric testing - hearing protection - employee training and education - record keeping - program evaluation
Compare and contrast "standards" and "regulations?" Compare: both are there to provide for best care of workers Contrast: standards do not have to be followed and regulations have to followed as the are enforced by law; standards are the guidelines issued by bodies and regulations are prescribed by govt
What is the difference b/w "regulations" and "legislation?" Regulations are the administrative bodies that oversee the laws and legislation enacts and funds the laws
OSHA is part of what department? NIOSH is part of what department? OSHA - Department of Labor NIOSH - Department of Health and Human Services
How changes to legislation made, i.e. how would OSHA update the 1983 Hearing Conservation Amendment? Policies - changes, clarification, interpretations of regulations Created without going through official rule making process. Not always legally enforceable
Who enforces OSHA regulations? OSHA compliance officers - they can issue citations to industry for not following regs.
When did workers compensation start? - Federal Employees Compensation Act of 1908 was 1st workers comp law - Most programs began b/w 1911 and 1920 - Benefits were scheduled and partial benefits were excluded
What is the purpose of having workers comp laws? - Implemented to keep lawsuits and injuries out of the court system - Employer automatically assumes liability for work-related injuries - Employees gives up rights to civil suits - More specific legislation should mean less litigations
Are all workers comp laws the same? Federal laws are followed by everyone. However, States can have their own laws and other agencies (VA, federal civilian employees, etc) have their own regulations (that have their basis in federal law).
How are workers comps claims paid out? Employers workers compensation insurance
Describe the relationship b/w workers comp claims and civil litigation. - They are independent of OSHA regs. - Compliance w/ OSHA regs will not absolve employers of workers comp claims or civil liability - OSHA citations will not necessarily lead to workers comp claim or civil awards
Impairment Deviation or change for the worse in either auditory structure or function, usually outside the range of normal.
Handicap Disadvantage imposed by a hearing impairment on a person's communicative performance in activities of daily living.
Disability Determination of a financial award for the loss of function caused by any hearing impairment that results in significant hearing handicap.
What do all hearing loss formulas have in common? 1) Frequencies (speech) 2) Low fence 3) High fence 4) Rate or growth 5) Binaural weighting
AAOO American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
Hearing loss formula for AAOO 1959 PTA of 500, 1k, and 2K Hz Low fence - 25dB HL High fence - 95dB HL but 92dB HL is used for calc 1.5% per decibel growth Binaural weighting - 5:1
AAO-HNS American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
Hearing loss formula for AAO 1979 PTA of 500, 1k, 2k, 3k Hz Low fence - 25dB HL High fence - 92dB HL 1.5% per decibel growth Binaural weighting - 5:1
Hearing loss formula for ASHA 1981 PTA of 1k, 2k, 3k, 4k Hz Low fence - 25dB HL High fence - 75dB HL 2% per decibel growth Binaural weighting - 5:1
What is "medical evidence?" Physician (and sometimes audiologists) have to testify as to the amount of handicap the worker has incurred HL formula at discretion of consulting physician
What are the common hearing loss formulas used? AAOO-59 AAO-79 ME
What are some current issues in hearing loss formulas? Speech freqs of 500, 1k, & 2k Hz is inadequate 25dB HL loss has huge impact sentence and word recognition Low fence of 25dB HL is too high High fence of 92dB HL is excessive Rate of growth for loss is linear but HL is non-linear Binaural weighting
What are some other considerations in workers comp claims? Restrictions of workers ability to file claims (long waiting periods) Adjustments for age Tinnitus Statute of limitations to file claim Self-assessment hearing handicap surveys Hearing aids
What does the ADA do for people? Americans with Disabilities Act - Applies to people w/ hearing impairment - Employers are obligated to make "reasonable accommodations" to person's limitations - accommodations should not cause undue hardship on business
What are some examples of accommodations for one with a hearing impairment? Fax machines Personal computers e-mail capabilities hearing assistive technology telecommunications devices for the deaf captioned video tapes warning signs interpreters
Leq and definition Equivalent Continuos Sound Level - Measurement of a time-varying sound; Expressed as a time weighted energy average, represents the total sound energy over a given time period as if the sound were unvarying
TWA and definition Time-weighted average - That sound level, which if constant over an 8-hour exposure, would result in the same noise dose as is measured.
Nose Dose Percentage of an allowable noise exposure
Permissible (Recommended) Exposure Limit Indicates the level above which feasible engineering and/or administrative controls must be used to reduce the exposure
Exchange Rate Reflects the relationship between allowable exposure times and specific noise levels
What is the formula for noise dose? D=100[(C1/T1)+(C2+T2)+(C3+T3)...] OR 100 ([time of exposure to one noise level/reference duration of that noise level from 1920.95)+...]
Under OSHA Noise Regulation (CFR 1910.95) - original noise standard (1971), what is the employer responsibility? - use feasible administrative or engineering controls to reduce noise exposure below 90 dBA - if exposure can't be reduced, use hearing protection - administer a continuous effective hearing conservation program
For an employer, define "feasible?" Capable of being done. Technically feasible - defined as a reduction of at least 3 dB Economically feasible - controls have favorable cost-benefit
What is "noise exposure?" - Product of intensity and duration - Limit intensity of the noise or the amount of time spent in the noise
Define "administrative controls." - Modifications made to the work habits or the amount of time that employees spend in noisy areas - Controls that "remove the person" (even for a period of time)
Define "engineering controls." - Modifications made to the noise source of the environment that reduce the emissions or intensity of the noise as it arrives at the employee's ears - Controls that "remove the hazard" (making the equipment less loud)
What is OSHA "PEL?" Permissible Exposure Level - 90 dBA TWA - Indicates the level above which feasible engineering and/or administrative controls must be used to reduce the exposure - Hearing protection mandatory - Established in 1971, hasn't been changed since
What is OSHA "AL?" Action Level - 85 dBA TWA - Level that requires HCP: 1) Noise exp. monitoring 2) Admin/Engin controls 3) Audiometric testing 4) Hearing protection 5) Employee educ. and training 6) Recordkeeping
What is OSHA "TL?" Threshold (or trigger) Level - 80 dBA - All noise above the threshold level must be included when determining noise exposure - noise below threshold level does not contribute to noise exposure
What is OSHA "exchange rate?" - 5 dB - Rate at which exposure accumulates - The change in dB for halving/doubling exposure time
What is OSHA "ceiling level?" - No exposure >115 dB SPL - Continuous noise of any duration is not permitted above this level
What is OSHA "impulse noise exposure?" - Should not exceed 140 dB peak SPL - Noise with sharp rise and rapid decay in level, less than/greater than 1 second in duration, and if repeated, occurring at intervals >1 second
What are the differences between OSHA and NIOSH? Differences in PEL OSHA PEL = 90 dBA NIOSH REL = 85 dBA Differences in exchange rate OSHA = 5 dBA NIOSH = 3 dBA Terminology OSHA = Action Level NIOSH = Recommended Exposure Level
Created by: duda713